Prevalence of Azo Dye Adulterated Palm Oil in Ondo State (Nigeria) and Toxicological Effects on Liver, Kidney and Testicular Tissues of Albino Rats

Adulteration of fats and oils is an ancient challenge and has been the subject of many studies. Due to the recent increase in consumption of palm oil, its demand is outweighing consistent supply in Nigeria, adulteration has become imminent. The widening gap has given way to adulteration with azo dyes especially with Sudan III and IV dyes. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of adulteration of palm oil with azo dyes across the senatorial districts of Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria, and to evaluate its toxicity on the liver, kidney, and testicular tissues in exposed male albino rats. Palm oil sourced from oil mills and open markets across the senatorial districts were analyzed for the presence of adulterants. Twenty-five albino rats were divided into five groups and treated as thus; group I (control), groups II and III (1 ml/kg of unadulterated and adulterated palm oil respectively), groups IV and V (50 mg/kg Sudan III and IV respectively) for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, animals were sacrificed; kidney, liver and testis tissues were extracted for histological examination. The result showed that none of the palm oil samples from Oil mills contained adulterants, while some of the samples from open markets had adulterants. The source of adulteration was mainly from bulk buyers and retailers which is also more prevalent in the urban areas of the State. Histological examination showed micro morphological alteration characterized by mild to severe cellular damage and the presence of red inflammatory cells in the tissues. It is recommended that consumers patronize palm oil sellers at oil mills which is the genuine source and the government of Ondo State should create a public health awareness to consumers on the deleterious effects of consumption.

Author(s): Kola-Ajibade Ibukun R, Olusola Augustine O

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