Journal of Food Science and Toxicology is a Scientific Journal that publishes innovative peer-reviewed Articles representing research advances and complete studies dealing with Global trends in food safety and technology, Food biotechnology, Food chemistry, Techniques for assessing potential toxicity, Food science, Food and chemical toxicology, Food engineering, Nutrition research and technology, Agricultural and food research, Product development and quality assurance, Food fortification, Novel methods in food safety, Innovative and emerging technologies, Food microbiology, Food contaminants, Diabetis control and environmental pollutants, Mechanisms underlying toxic phenomena etc.
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Biotechnology has a long history of use in food production and processing. For ten thousand years fermentation, a form of biotechnology, has been used to produce wine, beer and bread. Selective breeding of animals such as horses and dogs has been going on for centuries. Selective breeding of essential foods such as rice, corn and wheat have created thousands of local varieties with improved yield compared to their wild ancestors. Today, through newer biotechnology and genetic engineering, scientists use techniques such as recombinant DNA (rDNA). Scientists, by using rDNA, can move one gene, the inherited instruction for specific traits, from one organism to another and omit the undesirable traits. This enables food producers to obtain animal and crop improvements in a much more precise, controlled and predictable manner. current applications of rDNA have been used to change a trait in its native plant system. For example a tomato to tomato transfer can control softening and ripening of the fruit. Another application is the transfer of modified forms of plant virus genes to plants to create a plant with complete resistance to that virus. It is easy to see how the use of rDNA enables much wider application of nature's diversity
Food processing is the transformation of raw ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms. Food processing combines raw food ingredients to produce marketable food products that can be easily prepared and served by the consumer. Food processing methods that are used to preserve foods include: • Refrigeration and freezing. • Canning. • Irradiation. • Dehydration. • Freeze-drying. • Pickling. • Pasteurizing. • Fermentation.
Food Hygiene and Toxicology is a solid reference for anyone in the food industry needing to understand the complex issues and mechanisms of biological control and chemical hazards to ensure food safety. infectious and non-infectious contaminants in raw, minimally processed, and prepared foods are covered in detail, as well as effective measures to avoid foodborne infections and intoxications. Strategies and recommendations for each food category include, among others, how to avoid cross-contamination of pathogens, the proper uses of antimicrobial coatings and spray cleanings of fresh produce, and acrylamide reduction during processing. leafy vegetables, fruit juices, nuts, meat and dairy products are some of the ready-to-eat foods covered. Presents information on psychrotropic pathogens and food poisoning strains, effect of temperature, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Norovirus, parasites, fungal, microbiota, enterotoxins, and more
Genetically engineered (GE) foods have had their DNA changed using genes from other plants or animals. Scientists take the gene for a desired trait in one plant or animal, and they insert that gene into a cell of another plant or animal. Genetic engineering can be done with plants, animals, or bacteria and other very small organisms. Genetic engineering allows scientists to move desired genes from one plant or animal into another. Genes can also be moved from an animal to a plant or vice versa. Another name for this is genetically modified organisms. This relatively new science allows DNA (genetic material) from one species to be transferred into another species, creating transgenic organisms with combinations of genes from plants, animals, bacteria, and even viral gene pools. The mixing of genes from different species that have never shared genes in the past is what makes GMOs and Genetically engineered crops so unique. It is impossible to create such transgenic organisms through traditional crossbreeding methods.
Food contains natural chemicals, including carbohydrates, sugars, proteins and vitamins. But some foods contain potentially harmful natural toxins. Sometimes a toxin is present as a naturally occurring pesticide to ward off insect attack or to protect the plant from spoilage when damaged by weather, handling, UV light or microbes. Food Toxicants covers different aspects from the field of analytical food toxicology including emerging analytical techniques and applications to detect food allergens, genetically modified organisms, and novel ingredients (including those of functional foods). Focus will be on natural toxins in food plants and animals, cancer modulating substances, microbial toxins in foods (algal, fungal, and bacterial) and all groups of contaminants (i.e., pesticides), persistent organic pollutants, metals, packaging materials, hormones and animal drug residues
Food safety refers to all those hazards, whether chronic or acute, that may make food injurious to the health of the consumer. It is not negotiable. Quality includes all other attributes that influence a product’s value to the consumer. This includes negative attributes such as Spoilage, contamination with filth, discoloration, off-odours and positive attributes such as the origin, colour, flavour, texture and processing method of the food. The foremost responsibility of food control is to enforce the food law(s) protecting the consumer against unsafe, impure and fraudulently presented food by prohibiting the sale of food not of the nature, substance or quality demanded by the purchaser. Foodborne disease outbreaks involving agents such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and chemical contaminants highlight problems with food safety and increase public anxiety that modern farming systems, food processing and marketing do not provide adequate safeguards for public health. Factors which contribute to potential hazards in foods include improper agricultural practices; poor hygiene at all stages of the food chain; lack of preventive controls in food processing and preparation operations; misuse of chemicals; contaminated raw materials, ingredients and water; inadequate or improper storage
These are some of the interesting names for small microorganisms that can cause big health problems when consumed in contaminated foods or beverages. The world of foodborne microbes contains a mix of approximately 250 different types of bacteria, viruses, parasites, molds, and algae that are known to cause disease in humans and are therefore called foodborne pathogens. What they all have in common is that they are most often too small to be seen without a microscope, they have simpler structures and functions than higher plants and animals, and they are able to be cultured in laboratory settings with prescribed methods that aid in their identification. Bacteria are the largest group of problematic foodborne pathogens by far. They are small, one-celled microbes that come in many shapes and are capable of reproducing themselves. Viruses are thought to be the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States based on the percentage of people ill, even though there are only a few viruses that are important foodborne pathogens. Viruses are much smaller than bacteria and cannot live outside a host, such as an animal or the human body.
the earliest methods of processing foods developed out of a direct need to assist people in surviving long winters. Because there was no chance to harvest fruits and vegetables in winter, it was important that people find a way to store enough food for the entire season. Drying and salting meats preserved it for months, as these methods removed or otherwise made unavailable the water needed by microorganisms that might spoil the food. Pickled vegetables and fruits could be stored for long periods, because the high acid content of the pickling solution killed off microorganisms. Apples packed in coal would not ripen as quickly. Smoking foods was another preservation method, because smoke contains chemicals with both antibacterial and antioxidant properties. Early societies also produced and used beer, wine, and other fermented drinks as a source of nutrients, such as the juice of grapes and other fruits or honey used to make wine, and the grains used to brew beer, as well as for their medicinal and antiseptic properties.
Food science are include many disciplines such as biology, chemical engineering, and biochemistry in an attempt to better understand food processes and ultimately improve food products for the general public. As the stewards of the field, food scientists study the physical, microbiological, and chemical makeup of food. By applying their findings, they are responsible for developing the safe, nutritious foods and innovative packaging that line supermarket shelves everywhere. Food Science is the multidisciplinary study of food and the application of knowledge thus gained to the development of food products and processes, the preservation and storage of foods, and the assurance of food safety and quality. Food scientists are involved in all aspects of this process, from the point of animal and crop production to the time of food consumption. This includes developing new and improved foods, analyzing food for its nutritional value and safety, and researching better ways to preserve food.
Author(s): Abdul Majeed
Author(s): Muyiwa Ogidi, MKC Sridhar and AO Coker
Leaching of heavy metals from household cookware’s can be a public health concern. Therefore, in this present study, some selected heavy metals namely: iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), zinc (Zn), lead ... Read More
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