Nowadays, city managers, and civic decisionmakers face environmental and urban infrastructure challenges as a serious issue. Environmental challenges are one of the topics that have been studied for a long time in various including landscape architecture. This is a review Article aimed at informing about the latest research developments and an in-depth and structured review of studies conducted since 2005. In this regard, this study extracted the most important environmental challenges, approaches,  and Ä?nÄ?ůyticÄ?ů tools presented in the studies by referring to and searching for valid  databases, and then categorizing and analyzing them based on the content and importance of the subject. The results indicated that  studies had adopted  approaches while pursuing the same goals. They also complemented or  each other and, at the same timÄ?Í? overlapped. Recent studies have led to approaches, An  tools, and modern modeling, including intelligence, machine learning, big data, etc., with a more rigorous ƐcŝÄ?ntiÄ®c basis in the data mining and analysis. However, internal studies have mainly focused on introducing and  some of the proposed approaches. A review of the literature showed the  tools in solving environmental crises due to the large volume of data as a result of the increased complexity of  parameters in urban planning and the common areas of architecture, landscape, and urban planning. It was also found that the use of digital tools and algorithmic processes can help landscape architects to develop  models in solving environmental crises and sustainable development.

Author(s): Parichehr Goodarzi*, Niloofar hashemi

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