Topicality: Pilonidal disease was first described as an independent disease more than 150 years ago (A. Anderson in 1847). In despite of this, discussions are still underway to clearly identify this pathology and its etiology.
Purpose: To specify the etiology of pilonidal disease in children.
Materials and methods: In the study we analyzed the results of treatment of 37 children diagnosed with “pilonidal disease”. There were 26 boys and 11 girls among the children. The average age of children was 16.4 ± 0.4 years. Obtained tissues were submitted for detailed histopathological examination. Sections of tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopy and photographic archive of histological specimens were performed using an OLIMPUS BX 41 light microscope at 100 and 200 magnification, in the Quick PHOTO MICRO 2.3 software environment.Research results: The study determined significant differences in the histological structure of the pilonidal cyst in children and adults. In children the mesenchymal tissue was detected, which should be absent in patients of this age group. It was also found that in children, unlike adults, the pilonidal cyst cavity contains almost no granulation tissue and is lined with a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Conclusion: In our opinion, pilonidal disease in children is congenital. This is confirmed by the presence of embryonic (mesenchymal) tissue and other characteristic histological findings. But they are realized due to environmental factors.