Phytochemical composition and antimicrobial evaluation of Kigelia africana LAM

Kigelia africana is a plant widely distributed in Africa and different parts of the plant are used traditionally in the treatment of various ailments. Phytochemical screening of petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Kigelia africana as well as antibacterial study of the various extracts against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus feacalis and Staphylococcus aureus were carried out. Phytochemical screening result showed the presence of glycosides, phenolic compounds (hydrolysable tannins), alkaloids, flavonoid and reducing sugar in all extracts while cardiac glycoside was noted only in chloroform extract. Petroleum ether extract showed a concentration dependent antibacterial activity against Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; chloroform extract showed similar activity against Streptococcus feacalis and Staphylococcus aureus; methanol and aqueous extracts were only active against Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial effect was statistically significant at all the concentrations tested in comparison to ciprofloxacin control group (P < 0.05). The dry leaf powder is a good source of phytochemicals/secondary metabolites and also possesses average antimicrobial potential. Thus, this study provides scientific evidence on the traditional use of Kigelia africana leaf extract in treating microbial diseases.

Author(s): M. N. Abdulkadir*, A. Adedokun and Efosa John

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