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Determinants of Breast Cancer Screening Utilization among Female Healthcare Workers in Selected Hospitals in Ogbomoso, OYO State

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and is increasing particularly in developing countries where majority of the cases were diagnosed at late stages. Early diagnosis of breast cancer is known to be vital not just in the treatment but also in determining its prognosis. Female healthcare providers have greater influence on women’s positive perception of breast cancer and motivation to practice the screening methods for early detection of the disease. The purpose of this study is to identify the determinants of breast cancer screening utilization among female healthcare workers in selected hospitals in Ogbomoso.

Methods: Descriptive cross- sectional design was employed. Purposive sampling technique was used and calculated sample sizes of 215 female healthcare workers were the study participants. Data were collected from the selected participants with the aid of validated structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using statistical package for Social Sciences version 22 and presented in tables and figures. The hypotheses were tested using chi square at 0.05 level of significance.

Results: Findings from the study revealed that 40 (18.6%) were doctors, 104 (48.4%) were nurses and 71 (32.4%) were medical laboratory scientists, pharmacists, CHEW, optometrists and dietetics. Majority of the respondents (81.4%) had good knowledge of BSE with a mean score of 10.02 ± 2.07 and 73.4% had good knowledge of CBE with a mean score 3.47 ± 1.21, but more than half of the respondents (52.6%) had poor knowledge of mammography with mean score of 2.34 ± 1.02. Age, marital status, religion, ethnic group, lack of time, financial constraints, fear of positive diagnosis, lack of awareness, pain and fear of radiation were some of the factors identified influencing the utilization of the screening measures. There was no significant relationship between attitude of respondents and their utilization of breast cancer screening (BSE, CBE, Mammography), p=0.428, X2=0.629 for BSE, p=0.307, X2=1.042 for CBE and p=0.162, X2=0.162 for mammography. Generally, the utilization of breast cancer screening was high for BSE (81.9%), below average for CBE (34.4%), and only 3.7% of the respondents had done mammography out of 38.2% that were eligible to undergo for the screening.

Conclusion: Majority of the respondents had good knowledge about breast cancer screening measures. Attitude towards breast cancer screening was also positive. However, only the practice of BSE was good while practice of CBE and mammography were quite poor. Therefore, there is an urgent need for sensitization of female healthcare workers on the need to undergo the screening especially clinical breast examination and mammography and establishment of more breast imaging centres as well as the inclusion of mammography into the national health insurance scheme to improve access to the services thereby reducing morbidity and mortality associated with the disease.

Author(s): Adeleke Fauziat Ololade*, Adeyemo Aminat Adesola* and Beatrice Ohaeri

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