Introduction: Codeine is phenanthrene extracted naturally from opium; it can also be produced artificially by the methylation of morphine. Among opiate drugs, codeine is the most frequently consumed around the world, broadly used for its pain-relieving, antitussive properties, and its ability to prevent diarrhea. The abuse of codeine products is a major developing general health challenge in numerous nations around the globe, this is because such items are available in the range of over the counter medications (OTC) which are consistent and easily get in the market even without a prescription. This paper discusses Codeine and the Preventive measures in mitigating against its Abuse and Misuse. It is a review study in which the prevalence rate of codeine misuse, motives for misuse of codeine, Side effects of codeine abuse, and Prevention of codeine abuse was discussed extensively under; Pharmacovigilance, drug education, monitoring, and screening. It was concluded that the importance and uses of codeine are numerous, but the abuse of codeine and codeine products, for example, the codeine cough syrup is a general health problem all over the world, and it remains necessary that codeine is regulated in each respective countries to reduce the prevalence rate of its misuse and abuse. One area of substance abuse among adolescents that have not been fully understood in the Nigerian context is the attitude of adolescents towards cough syrup abuse, as most related studies were either focused on attitude towards general substance abuse or substances other than cough syrup. Located in Orem, Utah, at the base of the beautiful Wasatch Mountains, the Dental Hygiene program at UVU provides an incredible clinical and academic opportunity for students interested in preventive oral healthcare and the promotion of good health. Through our program, you develop a commitment to lifelong learning, and pride in the profession.
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Objectives: The main objective of this research explored the attitudes of adolescents towards cough syrup abuse in Southwest Nigeria. One area of substance abuse among adolescents that is currently a problem, and has not been fully understood in the Nigerian context is the attitudes of adolescents towards cough syrup abuse. Thus, to inform policy actions for reducing cough syrup abuse among Nigerian adolescents, this study explored the attitudes of adolescents towards cough syrup abuse in two Southwest states of Nigeria, where substance abuse is rampant. By a stratified sampling method, 302 adolescents (152 males, 150 females; mean age = 13.61 years, SD = 2.09) were selected from secondary schools in Lagos and Oyo states, Nigeria, and data were collected using existing questionnaires with strong psychometric properties, and the response rate was 97.42%. Four (4) hypotheses were stated and tested using independent sample t-test and correlation statistics at p<0.05. The findings from the study concluded that adolescents' age and family marital structure were the variables found that significantly accounted for their attitudes towards cough syrup abuse, thus it is imperative enough that as adolescents are growing older, they are rightly guided against giving into substance abuse. Also, parents/caregivers of adolescents need to be actively involved in educating adolescents on the hazards associated with substance abuse.
By a stratified sampling method, 302 participants (152 males, 150 females; mean age=13.61 years, SD=2.09) were selected from secondary schools in Oyo state and Lagos state, Nigeria, and data were collected using standardized questionnaires. Guided by the literature review, four hypotheses were stated and tested using t-test and correlation statistics.
Results: Findings indicated that male and female adolescents did not significantly differ in their attitude towards cough syrup abuse (t=-16.68; DF=300; P>.05). Further results showed that there was a significant positive relationship between adolescents’ age and their attitude towards cough syrup abuse (r=.21; DF=300; P<.01). Another result showed that adolescents from polygamous families reported a significantly higher positive attitude towards cough syrup abuse than their counterparts from monogamous families (t=-18.98; DF=300; P<.05). The last finding showed that adolescents in Oyo state and Lagos state did not significantly differ in their attitude towards cough syrup abuse (t=.03; DF=300; P>.05).
Conclusion: Adolescents’ age and family marital structure are the variables found in this research that significantly accounts for their attitude towards cough syrup abuse, thus, it is imperative enough that as adolescents are growing older, they are rightly guided against giving into substance abuse. Also, parents/caregivers of adolescents need to be actively involved in educating adolescents on the hazards associated with substance abuse.