Journal of Zoonotic Diseases and Public Health is a multidisciplinary journal that aims to disseminate information, scholarship experience in education, practice and investigation between zoonotic diseases and public health and quality of care for individuals, families and communities.
Journal of Zoonotic Diseases and Public Health is a great source to supply scientists of zoonotic diseases with resources in order to provide the scientific knowledge through the publication of peer-reviewed, high quality, scientific papers and other material on all topics related to Zoonotic transmission, Zoonotic parasites, Zoonotic infections, Zoonotic hepatitis E, Zoonotic influenza, Zoonotic tuberculosis, Vector-borne zoonotic diseases, Zoonotic pathogens, Public health, School public health, Public health nutrition, Public health policy, Public health surveillance, Public awareness, Health services, Community health, environmental health and Disease control.
Journal of Zoonotic Diseases and Public Health uses Editorial Manager System for a qualitative and prompt review process. Editorial Manager is an online manuscript submission, review and tracking system. Review processing is performed by the editorial board members of Journal of Zoonotic Diseases and Public Health or relevant experts from other universities or institutes. Minimum two independent reviewer’s approval followed by editor approval is required for the acceptance of any citable manuscript. Authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress through the editorial system. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions to the editor whereas the editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process via editorial manager.
Rabies is an infectious viral disease, almost always fatal and in up to 99% of human cases, the virus is transmitted by domestic dogs. Infection causes tens of thousands of deaths every year, mostly in Asia and Africa. Rabies affects domestic and wild animals and is spread to people through bites or scratches, usually via saliva. The initial symptoms of rabies are fever and often pain or an unusual or unexplained tingling, pricking or burning sensation at the wound site. As the virus spreads through the central nervous system, progressive, fatal inflammation of the brain and spinal cord develops. No tests are available to diagnose rabies infection in humans before the onset of clinical disease, and unless the rabies-specific signs of hydrophobia or aerophobia are present, the clinical diagnosis may be difficult. Immunization and treatment for possible rabies are recommended for at least up to 14 days after exposure or a bite. Preventive measures include eliminating rabies in dogs by vaccinating them and Pre-exposure immunization is also recommended for people in certain high-risk occupations.
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Quality in Primary Care, Diversity & Equality in Health and Care, Journal of Tropical Diseases & Public Health, Reverse Zoonotic Disease Transmission (Zooanthroponosis), Importance of Zoonoses in Public Health.
Hantavirus is a life-threatening viral infection that normally infects rodents but do not cause disease in these hosts. Humans may become infected with this virus if they come in contact with rodent urine, saliva, or feces. It is seen that few strains of Hantaviruses can cause potentially fatal diseases in humans, such as Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The symptoms of Hantavirus disease include chills, fever, muscle aches, dry cough, nausea and vomiting, headache and shortness of breath. Diagnosis is done with blood tests. Treatment includes admitting the patient to the hospital and providing them with oxygen and mechanical ventilation support to help them breathe properly. The best prevention against Hantavirus is to eliminate or minimize contact with rodents at the home, workplace, or campsite. There is no commercially available vaccine that is effective for Hantavirus.
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Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis and is transmitted by droplet contact, direct physical contact, indirect contact, airborne transmission, fecal-oral transmission or vector borne transmission. It was known as the "Black Death" during the fourteenth century, causing an estimated 50 million deaths. It shows flu-like symptoms which include sudden fever, chills, headache, body ache, weakness, vomiting and nausea. Diagnosis and confirmation of plague requires laboratory testing and the best way to confirm is to identify Y. pestis in a sample of blood or sputum. Antibiotics and supportive therapy are effective against plague if patients are diagnosed in time. The antibiotics often used are streptomycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Since human plague is rare in most parts of the world, routine vaccination is not needed other than for those at particularly high risk of exposure.
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Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is a bacterial infection caused by the bacteria of the Borrelia type and is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected ticks of the Ixodes genus. People with early-stage Lyme disease develop an expanding area of redness at the site of the tick bite about a week after it has occurred. Some people also experience flu-like symptoms in the early stages, such as fever, headache and feeling tired. If left untreated, serious symptoms may develop which includes loss of the ability to move one or both sides of the face, joint pains, and severe headaches. Antibiotics are the primary treatment. A course of antibiotic tablets, capsules or liquid is given for two- to four-week, depending on the stage of the condition.
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Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria called Leptospira. It is transmitted by animal urine or by water or soil containing animal urine coming into contact with breaks in the skin, eyes, mouth, or nose. Symptoms can take 7 to 12 days and include fever, headache, muscle pain, shaking chills and abdominal pain. Diagnosis of leptospirosis is confirmed with tests such as testing a serum or blood sample, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Effective antibiotics like penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin and doxycycline are used. Avoid areas of stagnant water, especially in tropical climates. If you are exposed to a high risk area, taking doxycycline or amoxicillin may decrease your risk of developing this disease.
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Chikungunya is a viral infection caused by the chikungunya virus and is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. The virus is passed to humans by two species of mosquito of the genus Aedes: A. albopictus and A. aegypti. Symptoms usually begin 3–7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito which include fever and severe joint pain. Other symptoms include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash. Serological tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and virological methods (RT-PCR) are used for the purpose of diagnosis. There is no specific antiviral drug treatment for chikungunya. Treatment is directed primarily at relieving the symptoms, including the joint pain using anti-pyretic, optimal analgesics and fluids. The most effective means of prevention are protection against contact with the disease-carrying mosquitoes and reducing the number of natural and artificial water-filled container habitats that support breeding of the mosquitoes. There is no commercial chikungunya vaccine.
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Tularemia is a serious infectious disease caused by the intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis. Humans are most often infected by tick bite or through handling an infected animal. The bacteria can penetrate into the body through damaged skin, mucous membranes, and inhalation. Ingesting infected water, soil, or food can also cause infection. Symptoms develop 3 to 5 days after exposure and include fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, signs of sepsis, and possibly death. The goal of treatment is to cure the infection with antibiotics and the commonly used antibiotics are streptomycin and tetracycline. An attenuated, live vaccine is available, but only for high risk groups. Other preventive measures include the use of rubber gloves and eye protection when handling potentially infected wild animals.
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Giardia is a parasitic disease caused by the parasite Giardia lamblia. The organism inhabits the digestive tract of a wide variety of domestic and wild animal species, as well as humans. Giardiasis is transmitted by personal contact and contaminated water and food. Common symptoms include severe diarrhea, weakness and loss of appetite, stomach cramps, vomiting, bloating, excessive gas, and burping. Diagnosis of giardiasis is done by detection of antigens on the surface of organisms in stool specimens. In most cases, giardiasis resolves up on its own. If symptoms persist for a long time, a nitroimidazole medication is used such as metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole or ornidazole. Washing your hands and avoiding potentially contaminated food and untreated water is recommended for the prevention of giardia.
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Yellow fever is an acute viral disease caused by the yellow fever virus and is transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito. The virus is an RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus. Symptoms of yellow fever include fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting and fatigue which improve within five days but in some cases, liver damage begins causing yellow skin. Blood tests (RT-PCR) can sometimes detect the virus in the early stages of the disease. In later stages of the disease, testing to identify antibodies is needed (ELISA and PRNT). To confirm a suspected case, blood sample testing with polymerase chain reaction is required. There is currently no specific anti-viral drug for yellow fever but Good and early supportive treatment in hospitals improves survival rates. A symptomatic treatment includes rehydration and pain relief with drugs such as paracetamol. Prevention of yellow fever includes vaccination, as well as avoidance of mosquito bites in areas where yellow fever is endemic.
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Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis and is spread by contact with the spores of the bacteria, which are often from infectious animal products. Contact is by breathing, eating, or through an area of broken skin. There are 3 main routes of anthrax infection: cutaneous, inhalation, and gastrointestinal. Symptoms of cutaneous anthrax includes a small blister with surrounding swelling that often turns into a painless ulcer with a black center. Symptoms of inhalation anthrax begin with fever, headache, cough and shortness of breath. Symptoms of gastrointestinal anthrax usually include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain. The tests to diagnose anthrax are rapid diagnostic techniques such as polymerase chain reaction-based assays and immunofluorescence microscopy. Antibiotics are usually used to treat anthrax which includes penicillin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin. The anthrax vaccine is recommended for people who are at high risk and two months of antibiotics, such as doxycycline or ciprofloxacin, after exposure can also prevent infection.
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Zika virus is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus and is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. It replicates in the mosquito′s midgut epithelial cells and then its salivary gland cells. The symptoms includes fever, skin rashes, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise, and headache which are mild and normally lasts for 2-7 days. Zika virus is primarily transmitted to people through the bite of an infected mosquito or by having unprotected sex with an infected man. Diagnosis is done through laboratory tests on blood or other body fluids, such as urine, saliva or semen and no specific treatment is required for the disease. People sick with Zika virus should get plenty of rest, drink enough fluids, and treat pain and fever with common medicines. Currently, no vaccine is available for Zika Virus. A key measure to prevent Zika virus infection is protection against mosquito bites.
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Malaria is a life-threatening mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten and include fever, headache, chills and vomiting which may be mild but in severe cases it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, or death. The mosquito bite introduces the parasites from the mosquito's saliva into a person's blood from where the parasites travel to the liver where they mature and reproduce. Diagnosis is done by Rapid diagnostic test (RDT) due to its capacity to provide a quick diagnosis. Treatment is done to eliminate the Plasmodium parasite from the patient's bloodstream using ACT, artemisinin combined with a partner drug. The role of artemisinin is to reduce the number of parasites within the first three days while the partner drugs eliminate the rest. Preventive measures include medications, mosquito elimination and the prevention of bites. There is no vaccine for malaria.
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Author(s): Sylvia GL*, Luis S and Bibiana B
Title: Insights into genetic distances of pathogenic Leptospira spp. from humans, animals and environment using Multiple Locus Variable-number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) genotypes. Background: Lep ... Read More
Author(s): Shih TH, Wallace R, Tu WJ, Wu HY, Inoue S, Liu JN, Weng CJ and Fei CY*
On July 17, 2013, rabies was confirmed in ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) in Taiwan, which is the sole reservoir host. The epidemic happens solely in Taiwan Island. This research is to show the pro ... Read More
Author(s): Álvaro Felipe de Lima Ruy Dias, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de Almeida, Felipe Augusto Costantino Seabra da Cruz, Rafael Rodrigues da Silva, Juliana Yuki Rodrigues, Amanda Atsumy Funakawa Otsubo, Anderson Castro Soares de Oliveira and Valéria Régia Franco Sousa*
Introduction: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease of public health importance, whose main reservoir is the domestic dog. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and spat ... Read More
Author(s): Sophie Roelandt*, Vanessa Suin, Steven Van Gucht, Yves Van der Stede and Stefan Roels
When it is not overtly affecting human beings, the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Flavivirus (TBEV) remains mostly unnoticed during its enzootic cycles within vectors and unaffected animal species. Until rec ... Read More
Author(s): Mohameda HSA*, Anders D, Uswege M and Robinson HM
Antibiotics are deployed in large quantities both in human and veterinary medicine. They have played a major role in improving human health and supporting livestock production. However, the relevance ... Read More
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