Insights in Aquaculture and Biotechnology

About Insights in Aquaculture and Biotechnology

Insights in Aquaculture and Biotechnology is an International Open Access peer reviewed publication that discusses current research and advancements in Aqua culture and Biotechnology. The journal covers several key aspects in these fields by including research on topics like Aquaculture, prawn cultivation, crab and pearl farming. Biotechnological applications in improving the production rates, conservation of germplasm of various commercially important and endangered species at a broad spectrum of biotech research efforts and their applications to the aquaculture industry.

Insights in Aquaculture Biotechnology provides key reviews that look at the application of genetic, cellular, and molecular technologies to enable fish farmers to produce a more abundant, resilient, and healthier supply of seafood.` Biotechnology provides powerful tools for the sustainable development of aquaculture, fisheries, as well as the food industry. Increased public demand for seafood and decreasing natural marine habitats have encouraged scientists to study ways that biotechnology can increase the production of marine food products, and making aquaculture as a growing field of animal research. Biotechnology allows scientists to identify and combine traits in fish and shellfish to increase productivity and improve quality.

Scientists are investigating genes that will increase production of natural fish growth factors as well as the natural defense compounds marine organisms use to fight microbial infections. Modern biotechnology is already making important contributions and poses significant challenges to aquaculture and fisheries development. The journal encourages advancements in the areas not limited to the one mentioned above in the form of research articles, reviews, commentaries, case studies and letters to the editors. The editorial manager system facilitates a user friendly article submission, review and publication. Manuscripts that are thoroughly peer reviewed would ensure the best standards in the industry.

Submit manuscript at https://www.editorialmanager.com/imedpubjournals/ or you can mail to [email protected] or [email protected]

Welcome Message from Editor in chief

 

Dear Authors,Reviewers and Readers of Insights in Aquaculture and Biotechnology –

As the first Editor-in-Chief for Insights in Aquaculture and Biotechnology, I am delighted to be a part of this new cross-disciplinary initiative, which I believe is exactly the type of platform needed to highlight and broaden Fish firming and ground-based aquaculture and biotechnology research into widespread mainstream acceptance with the highest values of scientific integrity historically defined by the Insight Medical Publishing, iMedPub Journals. It gives me great pleasure to welcome you to the first edition of Insights in Aquaculture and Biotechnology for which I have acted as Editor in chief.

I am very aware of the responsibilities that the editor's role entails, and I approach my new role with both excitement and some trepidation! Given the secure footing of the journal I do not propose any immediate or radical changes under my leadership, however for Insights in Aquaculture and Biotechnology will need to continue to evolve to ensure full advantage is taken of the rapidly changing world of publication and information dissemination. The journal will continue to publish high quality clinical and epidemiological research in health and disease in later life.

Original research articles form the bulk of the content, with systematic reviews an important sub-section. We will encourage all authors to work to these standards. Such emphasis on methodological rigour is vital to ensure that conclusions reached from publications contained in the journal are valid and reliable. Peer review remains a vital component of our assessment of submitted articles. There have been criticisms of this process, including delaying publication, unreliability of decision making, overly conservative approach automatically rejecting ‘non-standard’ ideas, and that peer review is poor at detecting errors and misconduct. However these weaknesses can be managed by an effective and active editorial office, and I believe they are outweighed by the benefits.

There is strong consensus that accepted articles are often improved by peer review after referees' comments and criticisms are dealt with; this explicit appraisal process also helps to engender trust of the reader. However even the best clinical research publications, subjected to close scrutiny by peer review, often have weaknesses. Here editorials and commentaries play a key role in exploring more contentious issues in a balanced way, allowing the reader to make an informed decision on how or whether their clinical practice should be altered. It is important we have a good balance of different article type within the journal.

I am keen to encourage publication of high-quality evidence-based guidelines in for aquaculture and biotechnology. Such articles are widely read (and downloaded), can have major impact on clinical practice, and also tend to be highly cited to the benefit of our Impact Factor. The journal also has the potential to (re-) shape thinking on important concepts in clinical care, and here ‘new horizons’ articles have a particular role. The paper journal remains popular amongst readers, and it will remain the core output. However the use of electronic media is now a vital component of dissemination, providing a vehicle for wider international access to download selected publications, encouraging debate and discussion in letters to the editor, and providing a mechanism for publishing complex detailed appendices that are of interest to only a small proportion of readers. I am fortunate to be supported by a highly effective team in the editorial office who ‘pulls the whole show together’.

The current group of Associate Editors work incredibly hard particularly in the assessment and processing of submitted articles. The journal is also backed up by a stellar cast of experts on our international advisory board, which comprises individuals of the highest standing in aquaculture nd biotechnology; we are fortunate to have them as ambassadors for the journal.

Lastly I should thank all our submitting authors, who have toiled in the production of their work, and have chosen Insights in Aquaculture and Biotechnology as the journal they would like to publish in. Sadly due to pressures on publication ‘space’ less than 20% of submissions are eventually accepted for publication, so inevitably many of those submitting will be disappointed by rejection. Those that do have their work accepted should be proud of their achievement!

 
Xu Gao
Researcher in Research Center for Inland Seas,
Kobe University, Kobe, Japan

Fishing Techniques

It includes most effective methods of catching fish. These methods include spear fishing, netting, hand gathering, trapping etc. the term Fishing techniques is broadly applied on methods for catching aquatic animals such as molluscs, shellfish, squids etc.

Transgenesis

Transgenesis or transgenics may be defined as the introduction of exogenous gene / DNA into host genome resulting in its stable maintenance, transmission and expression. The technology offers an excellent opportunity for modifying or improving the genetic traits of commercially important fishers, mollusks and crustaceans for aquaculture. The idea of producting transgenic animals became popular when Palmitter in 1982 first produced transgenic mouse by introducing metallothionein human growth hormone fusion gene (mT-hGH) into mouse egg, resulting in dramatic increase in growth. This triggered a series of attemptson gene transfer in economically important animals including fish.

The most promising tool for the future of transgenic fish production is undoubtedly in the development of the embryonic stem cell (ESC) technology. There cells are undifferentiated and remain totipotent so they can be manipulated in vitro and subsequently reintroduce into early embryos where they can contribute to the germ line of the host. This would facilitate the genes to be stably introduced or deleted . Although significant progress has been made in several laboratories around the world, there are numerous problems to be resolved before the successful commercialization of the transgenic brood stock for aquaculture. To realize the full potential of the transgenic fish technology in aquaculture, several important scientific break Ð through are required.

Mariculture

Mariculture is a specialized branch of aquaculture involving the cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products in the open ocean, an enclosed section of the ocean, or in tanks, ponds or raceways which are filled with seawater. An example of the latter is the farming of marine fish, including finfish and shellfish like prawns, or oysters and seaweed in saltwater ponds. Non-food products produced by mariculture include: fish meal, nutrient agar, jewellery (e.g. cultured pearls), and cosmetics.

Cryopreservation of gametes or gene banking

Cryopreservation is a technique, which involve long-term preservation and storage of biological material at a very low temperature usually at -196 C ,the temperature of liquid nitrogen. It is based on the principle that very low temperature tranquilize or immobilize the physiological and biochemical activities of cell, thereby making it possible to keep them viable for very long period. The technology of cryopreservation of fish spermatozoa (milt) has been adopted for animal husbandary . The spermatozoa of almost all cultivable fish species has now been cryopreserved.

Cryopreservation overcomes problems of male maturing before female, allow selective breeding and stock improvement and enables the conservation. One of the emerging requirements for that can be used by breeders for evolving new strains. Most of the plant varieties that has been produced are based on the gene bank collections. Aquatic gene bank however suffers from the fact that at present it is possible to cryopreserve only the male gametes of finfishes and there in no viable technique for finfish eggs and embryos. However , the recent report on the freezing of shrimp embryos. However, the recent report on the freezing of shrimps embryos look promising. Therefore, it is essential that gene banking of cultivated and cultivable aquatic species be undertaken expeditiously.

Fish Health Management

Disease problem area major constraint for development of aquaculture. Biotechnological tools such as molecular diagnostic methods, use of vaccines and immunostimulants are gaining popularity for improving the disease resistance in fish and shellfish species world over for viral diseases, avoidance of the pathogen in very important.in this context there is a need to rapid method for detection of the pathogen. Biotechnological tools such as gene probes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are showing great potential in this area. Gene probes and PCR based diagnostic methods have developed for a number of pathogens affecting fish and shrimp.

In case of finfish aquaculture, number of vaccine against bacteria and viruses has been developed. Some of these have been conventional vaccines consisting of killed microorganism but new generation of vaccine consisting of protein subunit vaccine genetically engineered organism and DNA vaccine are currently under development. In the vertebrate system, immunization against disease is a common strategy. However the immune system of shrimp is rather poorly developed, biotechnological tools are helpful for development of molecule, which can stimulate this immune system of shrimp. Recent studies have shown that the non-specific defense system can be stimulated using, microbial product such as lipopolysacharides, peptidoglycans or glucans. Among the immunostimulants known to be effective in fish glucan and levamisole enhance phagocytic activities and specific antibody responses.

Biotechnology in fish breeding

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is now the best available biotechnological tool for the induced breeding of fish. GnRH is the key regulator and central initiator of reproductive cascade in all vertebrates. It is a decapeptide and was first isolated from pig and ship hypothalami with the ability to induce pituitary release of luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Since then only one form of GnRH has been identified in most placental mammals including human beings as the sole neuropeptide causing the release of LH and FSH. However ,in non mammalian species (except guinea pig) twelve GnRH variants have now been structurally elucidated ,among them seven or eight different forms have been isolated from fish species. Depending on the structural variant and their biological activities, number of chemical analogues have seen prepared and one of them is salmon GnRH analogue profusely used now in fish breeding and marked commercially throughout the world .The induced breeding of fish is now successfully achieved by development of GnRH technology.

Biotechnology in Medicine

It is anything but difficult to perceive how biotechnology can be utilized for restorative purposes. Information of the hereditary cosmetics of our species, the hereditary premise of heritable ailments, and the innovation of innovation to control and fix mutant qualities gives techniques to treat the malady. Pharmacogenomics is the investigation of how the hereditary legacy of an individual influences his/her body's reaction to drugs. It is a begat word gotten from the words "pharmacology" and "genomics". It is, along these lines, the investigation of the connection amongst pharmaceuticals and hereditary qualities. The vision of pharmacogenomics is to have the capacity to outline and create drugs that are adjusted to every individual's hereditary cosmetics.

Pharmacogenomics brings about the accompanying advantages: Advancement of tailor-made pharmaceuticals. Utilizing pharmacogenomics, pharmaceutical organizations can make drugs in view of the proteins, compounds, and RNA particles that are related with particular qualities and infections. These customized drugs guarantee to boost remedial impacts, as well as to diminish harm to close-by sound cells. More exact techniques for deciding proper medication doses. Knowing a patient's hereditary qualities will empower specialists to decide how well the patient's body can prepare and process a medication. This will amplify the estimation of the prescription and decline the probability of overdose. Enhancements in the medication disclosure and endorsement handle. The disclosure of potential treatments will be made simpler utilizing genome targets. Qualities have been related with various sicknesses and disarranges. With present day biotechnology, these qualities can be utilized as focuses for the improvement of viable new treatments, which could fundamentally abbreviate the medication revelation prepare. Better antibodies. More secure immunizations can be outlined and delivered by living beings changed by methods for hereditary designing. These immunizations will evoke the invulnerable reaction without the specialist dangers of contamination. They will be economical, steady, simple to store, and equipped for being designed to convey a few strains of pathogen on the double.

Current biotechnology can be utilized to produce existing medications all the more effortlessly and economically. The principal hereditarily built items were drugs intended to battle human ailments. In 1978, Genentech joined a quality for insulin with a plasmid vector and put the subsequent quality into a bacterium called Escherichia coli. Insulin, broadly utilized for the treatment of diabetes, was beforehand extricated from sheep and pigs. It was extremely costly and regularly evoked undesirable hypersensitive reactions.

The subsequent hereditarily built bacterium empowered the creation of huge amounts of human insulin requiring little to no effort. From that point forward, present day biotechnology has made it conceivable to deliver all the more effortlessly and efficiently the human development hormone, thickening variables for hemophiliacs, fruitfulness medications, erythropoietin, and different medications. Genomic information of the qualities required in infections, malady pathways, and sedate reaction locales are relied upon to prompt the disclosure of thousands all the more new targets.

Ocean Data Acquisition System

An Ocean Data Acquisition System (ODAS) is a set of instruments deployed at sea to collect as much meteorological and oceanographic data as possible. With their sensors, these systems deliver data both on the state of the ocean itself and the surrounding lower atmosphere. The use of microelectronics and technologies with efficient energy consumption allows increasing the types and numbers of sensor deployed on a single device.

Nano Biotechnology

Nano biotechnology is the application of nanotechnology in biological fields. Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that currently recruits approach, technology and facility available in conventional as well as advanced avenues of engineering, physics, chemistry and biology. It is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers.

SeaWiFS

SeaWIFS (Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor) was a satellite-borne sensor designed to collect global ocean biological data. Active from September 1997 to December 2010, its primary mission was to quantify chlorophyll produced by marine phytoplankton (microscopic plants). SeaWiFS was the only scientific instrument on GeoEye's OrbView-2 (AKA SeaStar) satellite, and was a follow-on experiment to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner on Nimbus 7. Launched August 1, 1997 on an Orbital Sciences Pegasus small air-launched rocket, SeaWiFS began scientific operations on September 18, 1997 and stopped collecting data on December 11, 2010, far exceeding its designed operating period of 5 years. The sensor resolution is 1.1 km (LAC), 4.5 km (GAC).

DNA Technology

DNA molecules are formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome. Recombinant DNA is possible because DNA molecules from all organisms share the same chemical structure. They contrast just in the nucleotide arrangement inside that indistinguishable general structure. Recombinant DNA is the general name for a bit of DNA that has been made by the blend of no less than two strands.

Recombinant DNA particles are at times called chimeric DNA, since they can be made of material from two distinct species, similar to the legendary delusion. R-DNA innovation utilizes palindromic arrangements and prompts the creation of sticky and limit closes. The DNA successions utilized as a part of the development of recombinant DNA atoms can begin from any species. For instance, plant DNA might be joined to bacterial DNA, or human DNA might be joined with contagious DNA. Moreover, DNA successions that don't happen anyplace in nature might be made by the compound union of DNA, and consolidated into recombinant atoms. Utilizing recombinant DNA innovation and engineered DNA, actually any DNA arrangement might be made and brought into any of an extensive variety of living creatures.

Virotherapy

Virotherapy is a treatment using biotechnology to convert viruses into therapeutic agents by reprogramming viruses to treat diseases. There are three main branches of virotherapy: anti-cancer oncolytic viruses, viral vectors for gene therapy and viral immunotherapy. In a slightly different context, virotherapy can also refer more broadly to the use of viruses to treat certain medical conditions by killing pathogens.

Aquaponics

Aquaponics refers to any system that joins ordinary aquaculture (raising sea-going creatures, for example, snails, fish, crawfish or prawns in tanks) with hydroponics (developing plants in water) in a harmonious situation. In ordinary aquaculture, discharges from the creatures being brought can aggregate up in the water, expanding danger. In an aquaponic framework, water from an aquaculture framework is nourished to a hydroponic framework where the side-effects are separated by nitrifying microscopic organisms at first into nitrites and in this manner into nitrates, which are used by the plants as supplements, and the water is then recycled back to the aquaculture framework. As existing hydroponic and aquaculture cultivating strategies shape the reason for all aquaponics frameworks, the size, many-sided quality, and sorts of sustenance developed in an aquaponics framework can shift as much as any framework found in either unmistakable cultivating discipline.

Aquaponics comprises of two fundamental parts, with the aquaculture part to raise sea-going creatures and the hydroponics part to grow plants. Aquatic effluents, coming about because of uneaten nourish or raising creatures like fish, gather in water because of the shut framework distribution of most aquaculture frameworks. The profluent rich water winds up noticeably dangerous to the sea-going creature in high fixations yet this contains supplements fundamental for plant growth. Although comprising basically of these two sections, aquaponics frameworks are typically gathered into a few segments or subsystems in charge of the successful expulsion of strong squanders, for adding bases to kill acids, or for keeping up water oxygenation.

Biotechnology in Food science

Biotechnology in Food science genetically engineered foods, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering as opposed to traditional cross breeding. In the U.S., the Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) support the utilization of "hereditary designing" over "hereditary change" as the more exact term; the USDA characterizes hereditary alteration to incorporate "hereditary building or other more customary strategies."

Hereditarily adjusted sustenances or GM nourishments, otherwise called hereditarily built nourishments or bioengineered nourishments, are nourishments created from living beings that have had changes brought into their DNA utilizing the techniques for hereditary designing. Hereditary designing procedures take into account the presentation of new qualities and also more noteworthy control over characteristics than past techniques, for example, specific reproducing and change rearing. Business offer of hereditarily altered sustenances started in 1994, when Calgene first showcased its unsuccessful Flavr Savr deferred maturing tomato. Most nourishment changes have fundamentally centered around trade trims out appeal by agriculturists, for example, soybean, corn, canola, and cotton.

Hereditarily altered harvests have been designed for imperviousness to pathogens and herbicides and for better supplement profiles. GM domesticated animals have been created, in spite of the fact that as of November 2013 none were available. There is a logical agreement that as of now accessible sustenance gotten from GM crops represents no more serious hazard to human wellbeing than ordinary nourishment, yet that every GM nourishment should be tried on a case-by-case premise before presentation. In any case, individuals from general society are substantially less likely than researchers to see GM sustenances as sheltered. The lawful and administrative status of GM sustenances shifts by nation, with a few countries forbidding or confining them, and others allowing them with generally varying degrees of control.

Biomedical Imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology). Medical imaging seeks to reveal internal structures hidden by the skin and bones, as well as to diagnose and treat disease. Medical imaging also establishes a database of normal anatomy and physiology to make it possible to identify abnormalities. Although imaging of removed organs and tissues can be performed for medical reasons, such procedures are usually considered part of pathology instead of medical imaging.

As a discipline and in its widest sense, it is part of biological imaging and incorporates radiology which uses the imaging technologies of X-ray radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, medical ultrasonography or ultrasound, endoscopy, elastography, tactile imaging, thermography, medical photography and nuclear medicine functional imaging techniques as positron emission tomography (PET) and Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

Marine and Oceanographic Instruments

Instruments measure or sample various physical, chemical and biological quantities in the water column, such as Nansen bottle which is a device for obtaining samples of seawater at a specific depth. It was designed in 1894 by the early 19th to 20th-century explorer and oceanographer Fridtjof Nansen and further developed by Shale Niskin in 1910. The bottle, more precisely a metal or plastic cylinder, is lowered on a cable into the ocean, and when it has reached the required depth, a brass weight called a "messenger" is dropped down the cable. When the weight reaches the bottle, the impact tips the bottle upside down and trips a spring-loaded valve at the end, trapping the water sample inside. The bottle and sample are then retrieved by hauling in the cable. A second messenger can be arranged to be released by the inverting mechanism, and slide down the cable until it reaches another Nansen bottle. By fixing a sequence of bottles and messengers at intervals along the cable, a series of samples at increasing depth can be taken from a single action.

Ocean Acoustic Tomography

Ocean acoustic tomography is a technique used to measure temperatures and currents over large regions of the ocean. On ocean basin scales, this technique is also known as acoustic thermometry. The technique relies on precisely measuring the time it takes sound signals to travel between two instruments, one an acoustic source and one a receiver, separated by ranges of 100–5000 km. If the locations of the instruments are known precisely, the measurement of time-of-flight can be used to infer the speed of sound, averaged over the acoustic path. Changes in the speed of sound are primarily caused by changes in the temperature of the ocean; hence the measurement of the travel times is equivalent to a measurement of temperature. A 1 °C change in temperature corresponds to about 4 m/s change in sound speed. An oceanographic experiment employing tomography typically uses several source-receiver pairs in a moored array that measures an area of ocean.

Genetic Diagnosis and Gene Therapy

The process of testing for suspected genetic defects before administering treatment is called genetic diagnosis by genetic testing. Contingent upon the legacy examples of a sickness causing quality, relatives are encouraged to experience hereditary testing. Treatment designs depend on the discoveries of hereditary tests that decide the kind of growth. On the off chance that the growth is caused by acquired quality transformations, other female relatives are likewise encouraged to experience hereditary testing and occasional screening for bosom tumor. Hereditary testing is likewise offered for hatchlings to decide the nearness or nonappearance of infection causing qualities in families with particular, incapacitating sicknesses. Hereditary testing includes the immediate examination of the DNA particle itself.

A researcher examines a patient's DNA test for changed arrangements. There are two noteworthy sorts of quality tests. In the main sort, a specialist may configuration short bits of DNA whose successions are reciprocal to the transformed arrangements. These tests will look for their supplement among the base sets of a person's genome. In the event that the changed succession is available in the patient's genome, the test will tie to it and banner the transformation. In the second sort, a scientist may lead the quality test by looking at the succession of DNA bases in a patient's quality to an ordinary adaptation of the quality.

Quality treatment is a hereditary designing strategy used to cure infection. In its least complex frame, it includes the presentation of a decent quality at an arbitrary area in the genome to help the cure of an ailment that is caused by a changed quality. The great quality is generally brought into sick cells as a feature of a vector transmitted by an infection that can taint the host cell and convey the outside DNA. More propelled types of quality treatment attempt to rectify the transformation at the first site in the genome, for example, is the situation with treatment of serious joined immunodeficiency (SCID).

Environmental Biotechnology

Environmental biotechnology is biotechnology that is applied to and used to study the natural environment. Natural biotechnology could likewise infer that one attempt to tackle organic process for business uses and misuse. The International Society for Environmental Biotechnology characterizes ecological biotechnology as "the improvement, utilize and control of natural frameworks for remediation of polluted conditions (arrive, air, water), and for condition cordial procedures (green assembling advancements and manageable advancement)". Ecological biotechnology can essentially be portrayed as "the ideal utilization of nature, as plants, creatures, microbes, parasites and green growth, to deliver sustainable power source, sustenance and supplements in a synergistic coordinated cycle of benefit making forms where the misuse of each procedure turns into the feedstock for another procedure".

People have been controlling hereditary material for a considerable length of time. Albeit many advantages are given by these controls, there can likewise be unforeseen, negative wellbeing and ecological results. Natural biotechnology, at that point, is about the harmony between the applications that accommodate these and the ramifications of controlling hereditary material. Course readings address both the applications and suggestions. Ecological designing writings tending to sewage treatment and natural standards are frequently now thought to be ecological biotechnology writings. These for the most part address the utilizations of biotechnologies, though the ramifications of these innovations are less frequently tended to; as a rule in books worried about potential effects and even disastrous occasions.

Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA is obtained by either isolating or copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods or by artificially synthesizing the DNA. A construct is usually created and used to insert this DNA into the host organism. As well as inserting genes, the process can also be used to remove, or "knock out", genes. The new DNA can be inserted randomly, or targeted to a specific part of the genome.

Tissue Science

Tissue Science employs physical, chemical, and biological factors to replace and/or improve biological functions of the cell. The interdisciplinary field of tissue engineering has been one of the most active and quickly expanding disciplines during the past two decades. This provides an opportunity to increase number of research groups throughout the world to develop various novel tissue engineering approaches. Tissue Science includes a wide range of fields in its discipline to create a platform.

Genetic Modification In Aquatic Life

Genetic modification in Aquatic Life used in scientific research and kept as pets. They are being developed as environmental pollutant sentinels and for use in aquaculture food production. In 2015, the AquAdvantage salmon was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for commercial production, sale and consumption, making it the first genetically modified animal to be approved for human consumption.

Some GM fish that have been created have promoters driving an over-production of "all fish" growth hormone. This results in dramatic growth enhancement in several species, including salmonids, carps and tilapias. Critics have objected to GM fish on several grounds, including ecological concerns, animal welfare concerns and with respect to whether using them as food is safe and whether GM fish are needed to help address the world's food needs.

Geoduck Aquaculture

Geoduck aquaculture or geoduck farming is the practice of cultivating geoducks (specifically the Pacific geoduck, Panopea generosa) for human consumption. The geoduck is a large edible saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusk, that is native to the Pacific Northwest. Juvenile geoducks are planted or seeded on the ocean floor or substrate within the soft intertidal and subtidal zones, then harvested five to seven years later when they have reached marketable size (about 1 kg or 2.2 lbs). They are native to the Pacific region and are found from Baja California, through the Pacific Northwest and Southern Alaska. Most geoducks are harvested from the wild, but because of state government-instituted limits on the amount that can be harvested, the need to grow geoducks in farms to meet an increasing demand has led to the growth of the geoduck aquaculture industry, particularly in Puget Sound, Washington. Geoduck meat is a prized delicacy in Asian cuisine; the majority of exports are sent to China (Shanghai, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Beijing, are the main Chinese markets), Hong Kong and Japan.

Aquatic and Marine Engineering

Sea-going Engineering is a developing investigation of incorporating environment and building, worried about the outline, observing, and development of biological communities under sea. Marine building incorporates the designing of water crafts, ships, oil rigs and some other marine vessel or structure, and in addition oceanographic building. In particular, marine building is the teach of applying building sciences, including mechanical designing, electrical building, electronic designing, and software engineering, to the improvement, outline, operation and support of watercraft drive and on-board frameworks and oceanographic innovation.

It incorporates yet is not constrained to power and impetus plants, apparatus, channeling, robotization and control frameworks for marine vehicles of any sort, for example, surface ships and submarines. The absolutely mechanical ship operation part of marine designing has some association with maritime engineering. Be that as it may, while maritime planners are worried about the general outline of the ship and its impetus through the water, marine architects are engaged towards the principle drive plant, the controlling and motorization parts of the ship capacities, for example, directing, mooring, freight dealing with, warming, ventilation, aerating and cooling, electrical power era and electrical power appropriation, inside and outside correspondence, and other related necessities. Now and again, the duties of every industry impact and are not particular to either field.

Propellers are cases of one of these sorts of duties. For maritime planners a propeller is a hydrodynamic gadget. For marine designers a propeller demonstrations comparably to a pump. Frame vibration, energized by the propeller, is another such range. Clamor control and stun solidifying must be the joint duty of both the maritime draftsman and the marine architect. Truth be told, most issues caused by apparatus are obligations as a rule.

GLORIA sidescan sonar

The GLORIA sidescan sonar is a side-scan sonar system for determining the topography of the ocean floor. GLORIA stands for Geological Long Range Inclined Asdic. Like most side-scan sonars, the GLORIA instrument is towed behind a ship. GLORIA has a ping rate of two per minute, and detects returns from a range of up to 22 km either side of the sonar fish.

Bathythermograph

The bathythermograph, or BT, also known as the Mechanical Bathythermograph, or MBT; is a small torpedo-shaped device that holds a temperature sensor and a transducer to detect changes in water temperature versus depth down to a depth of approximately 285 meters (935 feet). Lowered by a small winch on the ship into the water, the BT records pressure and temperature changes on a coated glass slide as it is dropped nearly freely through the water. While the instrument is being dropped, the wire is paid out until it reaches a predetermined depth, then a brake is applied and the BT is drawn back to the surface. Because the pressure is a function of depth (see Pascal's law), temperature measurements can be correlated with the depth at which they are recorded.

Coastal Ecosystems

Aquaculture is becoming a significant threat to coastal ecosystems. About 20 percent of mangrove forests have been destroyed since 1980, partly due to shrimp farming. An extended cost–benefit analysis of the total economic value of shrimp aquaculture built on mangrove ecosystems found that the external costs were much higher than the external benefits.[94] Over four decades, 269,000 hectares (660,000 acres) of Indonesian mangroves have been converted to shrimp farms. Most of these farms are abandoned within a decade because of the toxin build-up and nutrient loss.

Molecular-Biotechnology

Molecular Biotechnology is a growing field of science that combines applications from biochemistry, immunology, genetics and microbiology. It can offer innovative solutions to tackle global problems ranging from human and animal health to agriculture and sustainable energy production.

Seawater ponds

In seawater pond mariculture, fish are raised in ponds which receive water from the sea. This has the benefit that the nutrition (e.g. microorganisms) present in the seawater can be used. This is a great advantage over traditional fish farms (e.g. sweet water farms) for which the farmers buy feed (which is expensive). Other advantages are that water purification plants may be planted in the ponds to eliminate the buildup of nitrogen, from fecal and other contamination. Also, the ponds can be left unprotected from natural predators, providing another kind of filtering.

Habitat and Biology of Aquatic Life

The marine environment supplies many kinds of habitats that support marine life. Marine life depends in some way on the saltwaterthat is in the sea (the term marine comes from the Latin mare, meaning sea or ocean). A habitat is an ecological or environmentalarea inhabited by one or more living species.

Marine habitats can be divided into coastal and open ocean habitats. Coastal habitats are found in the area that extends from as far as the tide comes in on the shoreline out to the edge of the continental shelf. Most marine life is found in coastal habitats, even though the shelf area occupies only seven percent of the total ocean area. Open ocean habitats are found in the deep ocean beyond the edge of the continental shelf. In contrast to terrestrial habitats, marine habitats are shifting and ephemeral. Swimming organisms find areas by the edge of a continental shelf a good habitat, but only while upwelling bring nutrient rich water to the surface. Shellfish find habitat on sandy beaches, but storms, tides and currents mean their habitat continually reinvents itself.

Oyster farming

Oyster farming is an aquaculture (or mariculture) practice in which oysters are raised for human consumption. Oysters naturally grow in estuarine bodies of brackish water. When farmed, the temperature and salinity of the water are controlled (or at least monitored), so as to induce spawning and fertilization, as well as to speed the rate of maturation – which can take several years. Three methods of cultivation are commonly used. In each case oysters are cultivated to the size of "spat," the point at which they attach themselves to a substrate.

The substrate is known as a "cultch" (also spelled "cutch" or "culch"). The loose spat may be allowed to mature further to form "seed" oysters with small shells. In either case (spat or seed stage), they are then set out to mature. The maturation technique is where the cultivation method choice is made. In one method the spat or seed oysters are distributed over existing oyster beds and left to mature naturally. Such oysters will then be collected using the methods for fishing wild oysters, such as dredging.

Aquacultural Engineering

Aquacultural engineering is a multidisciplinary field of engineering that aims to solve technical problems associated with farming aquatic vertebrates, invertebrates, and algae. Common aquaculture systems requiring optimization and engineering include sea cages, ponds, and recirculating systems. The design and management of these systems is based on their production goals and the economics of the farming operation.

Aquaculture technology is varied with design and development requiring knowledge of mechanical, biological and environmental systems along with material engineering and instrumentation. Furthermore, engineering techniques often involve solutions borrowed from wastewater treatment, fisheries, and traditional agriculture. Aquacultural engineering has played a role in the expansion of the aquaculture industry, which now accounts for half of all seafood products consumed in the world. To identify effective solutions the discipline is combined with both fish physiology and business economics knowledge.

Aquarium

An aquarium is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which water-dwelling plants or animals are kept and displayed. Fish keepers use aquaria to keep fish, invertebrates, amphibians, aquatic reptiles such as turtles, and aquatic plants. The aquarium principle was fully developed in 1850 by the chemist Robert Warington, who explained that plants added to water in a container would give off enough oxygen to support animals, so long as their numbers do not grow too large.

Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS)

RAS are used in home aquaria and for fish production where water exchange is limited and the use of bio-filtration is required to reduce ammonia toxicity. Other types of filtration and environmental control are often also necessary to maintain clean water and provide a suitable habitat for fish. The main benefit of RAS is the ability to reduce the need for fresh, clean water while still maintaining a healthy environment for fish. To be operated economically commercial RAS must have high fish stocking densities, and many researchers are currently conducting studies to determine if RAS is a viable form of intensive aquaculture.

Rhizofiltration

Rhizofiltration is a form of phytoremediation that involves filtering water through a mass of roots to remove toxic substances or excess nutrients. Rhizofiltration is a kind of phytoremediation, which alludes to the approach of utilizing hydroponically developed plant roots to remediate debased water through assimilation, focus, and precipitation of contaminations. It likewise channels through water and earth. The sullied water is either gathered from a waste site or conveyed to the plants, or the plants are planted in the debased zone, where the roots at that point take up the water and the contaminants broken up in it. Many plant species actually take-up substantial metals and abundance supplements for an assortment of reasons: sequestration, dry season resistance, transfer by leaf abscission, obstruction with different plants, and protection against pathogens and herbivores. Some of these species are superior to others and can collect unprecedented measures of these contaminants.

Distinguishing proof of such plant species has driven ecological specialists to understand the potential for utilizing these plants for remediation of debased soil and wastewater. Rhizofiltration might be appropriate to the treatment of surface water and groundwater, modern and private effluents, downwashes from electrical cables, storm waters, corrosive mine seepage, farming overflows, weakened mucks, and radionuclide-debased arrangements. Plants reasonable for rhizofiltration applications can productively expel harmful metals from an answer utilizing fast development root frameworks. Different earthly plant species have been found to viably expel lethal metals, for example, Cu2+, Cd2+, Cr6+, Ni2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ from watery solutions. It was likewise discovered that low level radioactive contaminants can effectively be expelled from fluid streams.

Aquatic Plants and Animals

Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater). They are also referred to as hydrophytes or macrophytes. These plants require special adaptations for living submerged in water, or at the water's surface. The most common adaptation is aerenchyma, but floating leaves and finely dissected leaves are also common. Aquatic plants can only grow in water or in soil that is permanently saturated with water.

They are therefore a common component of wetlands. An aquatic animal is an animal, either vertebrate or invertebrate, which lives in water for most or all of its life. Many insects such as mosquitoes, mayflies, dragonflies and caddisflies have aquatic larvae, with winged adults. Aquatic animals may breathe air or extract oxygen from that dissolved in water through specialised organs called gills, or directly through the skin. Natural environments and the animals that live in them can be categorized as aquatic (water) or terrestrial (land).

Aquarist

An aquarist owns fish or maintains an aquarium, typically constructed of glass or high-strength acrylic. Cuboid aquaria are also known as fish tanks or simply tanks, while bowl-shaped aquaria are also known as fish bowls. Size can range from a small glass bowl to immense public aquaria. Specialized equipment maintains appropriate water quality and other characteristics suitable for the aquarium's residents.

Marine Biotechnology

The utilization of science and innovation to living beings, and in addition parts, items and models thereof, to modify living or non-living materials for the creation of information, products and ventures' in the zones of atomic science, genomics, proteomics, cell science, and organic chemistry, and especially empowers entries of papers identified with genome science, for example, linkage mapping, extensive scale quality revelations, QTL investigation, physical mapping, and relative and useful genome examination. Papers on mechanical advancement and marine characteristic items ought to show development and novel applications.

This covers all cutting edge biotechnology additionally numerous more generation related and conventional marginal exercises utilized as a part of agribusiness, nourishment and drink creation (e.g. cheddar and brew). These days, biotechnology is all the more regularly considered as far as front line sub-atomic or genomic organic applications where sub-atomic or hereditary material is controlled to create attractive items or different advantages. Marine Biotechnology incorporates those endeavors that include marine bio resources, either as the source or the objective of biotechnology applications. Much of the time this implies the living life forms which are utilized to create items or administrations are gotten from marine sources. In the meantime, if earthly living beings are utilized to build up a biosensor which is utilized as a part of the marine condition to survey the biological system wellbeing then it additionally falls inside the circle of marine biotechnology.

Marine microorganism

Marine microorganisms are characterized by their territory as the microorganisms living in a marine domain, that is, in the saltwater of an ocean or sea or the bitter water of a beach front estuary. A microorganism (or organism) is any minute living creature, that is, any life shape too little for the exposed human eye to see, requiring a magnifying instrument. Microorganisms are extremely various.

They can be single-celled or multicellular and incorporate all microorganisms and archaea and most protozoa, and also a few types of growths, green growth, and certain minute creatures, for example, rotifers. Numerous naturally visible creatures and plants have minuscule adolescent stages. A few microbiologists additionally arrange infections (and viroids) as microorganisms, yet others consider these as nonliving. In July 2016, researchers revealed distinguishing an arrangement of 355 qualities from the last all inclusive basic progenitor (LUCA) of all life, including microorganisms, living on Earth. Microorganisms are critical to supplement reusing in environments as they go about as decomposers.

A little extent of microorganisms are pathogenic, causing infection and even demise in plants and creatures. As tenants of the biggest condition on Earth, microbial marine frameworks drive changes in each worldwide framework. Organisms are in charge of basically all the photosynthesis that happens in the sea, and additionally the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and different supplements and follow components.

Plant Biotechnology

This branch of biotechnology is connected to agrarian procedures. A case would be the determination and training of plants by means of smaller scale proliferation. Another illustration is the outlining of transgenic plants to develop under particular conditions in the nearness (or nonappearance) of chemicals. One expectation is that green biotechnology may create more naturally inviting arrangements than customary modern horticulture. A case of this is the building of a plant to express a pesticide, along these lines finishing the need of outer use of pesticides. A case of this would be Bt corn. Regardless of whether green biotechnology items, for example, this are at last more earth well-disposed is a point of significant civil argument.

Hereditarily adjusted harvests ("GM yields", or "biotech crops") are plants utilized as a part of horticulture, the DNA of which has been changed with hereditary building procedures. As a rule the point is to acquaint another attribute with the plant which does not happen normally in the species. Cases in sustenance crops incorporate imperviousness to specific irritations, infections, unpleasant ecological conditions, imperviousness to substance medications (e.g. imperviousness to a herbicide), decrease of deterioration, or enhancing the supplement profile of the product. Cases in non-nourishment crops incorporate creation of pharmaceutical operators, biofuels, and other modernly helpful products, and additionally for bioremediation.

Fish Hatchery

Fish Hatchery is an angle birthplace which is a "place for bogus breeding, hatching and appearance through the aboriginal activity stages of animals, finfish and mollusk in particular". Hatcheries aftermath abecedarian and adolescent angle (and mollusk and crustaceans) primarily to abutment the aquaculture industry area they are transferred to on-growing systems i.e. angle farms to ability autumn size. Some breeds that are frequently aloft in hatcheries cover Pacific oysters, shrimp, Indian prawns, salmon, tilapia and scallops.

Ornamental Fish Farming

Ornamental fish befitting and its advancement has been an absorbing action for many, which accommodate not alone artful amusement but as well farming openings. About 600 accessory of fish breed has been accepted appears as a common from assorted amphibian environments. Indian amnion acquires an affluent assortment of accessory fish, with over 100 aboriginal varieties, in accession to an agnate amount of alien breed that are bred in captivity. Accessory angle ability is fast arising as an above annex of aquaculture globally. Aquarium befitting is the additional better amusement in the apple next to photography and the accessory angle and amphibian bulb industry is fast accepting accent due to its amazing bread-and-butter opportunities and prospects.

Extensive aquaculture

Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing sectors of food production in the world and there is much hope that it will be the supplement to dwindling wild fisheries. Fish is the most important source of protein for many diets, particularly those in rural, coastal communities. Extensive aquaculture is the other form of fish farming. Extensive aquaculture is added basal than accelerated aquaculture in that beneath accomplishment is put into the husbandry of the fish.

Bait fish

Bait fish are small fishes used as allurement to allure ample bloodthirsty fish, decidedly bold fish. Species acclimated are about those that are accepted and brand rapidly, authoritative them simple to bolt and in approved supply. Examples of abyssal allurement fishes are anchovies, gudgeon, halfbeaks such as ballyhoo and scads.

Marine Biology

Marine biology is the scientific study of organisms in the sea. Given that in biology many phyla, families and genera have some species that live in the sea and others that live on land, marine biology classifies species based on the environment rather than on taxonomy.

Fish Farming

Fish cultivating or pisciculture includes bringing fish commercially up in tanks or ponds, mainly for food. It is the foremost type of aquaculture; while different other strategies may fall under mariculture. Around the world, the most extensively used fish species for fish Farming are carp, tilapia, salmon, and catfish.

Spawning

The term spawning means, discharge or deposition of eggs and sperm into water by aquatic animals. Most water animals, with the exception of aquatic vertebrates and reptiles, procreate by this method. Spawning comprises of the conceptive cells (gametes) of many animals living under water, some of which will progress for fertilization. In this process the female discharges exceptionally large amount of ovum into the water body simultaneously the males release the spermatozoa into the water in order to fertilize the eggs.

Fish Fingerling

Fingerlings are the tiny fishes less than a year old and about the size of a human finger.

Trawling

Trawling is a strategy used for angling which includes pulling fishing net through the water behind at least one pontoon. The net that is utilized for trawling is known as a trawl. The boats used for trawling are called trawlers or draggers. In this method baits are used to catch fishes in bulk. Trawling is used for both commercial and recreational purposes.

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