Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organisms genome using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA is obtained by either isolating or copying the genetic material of interest using molecular cloning methods or by artificially synthesizing the DNA. A construct is usually created and used to insert this DNA into the host organism. As well as inserting genes, the process can also be used to remove, or "knock out", genes. The new DNA can be inserted randomly, or targeted to a specific part of the genome.