Periodontal Disease

A set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth and destroys the jawbone is known as Periodontal disease. Periodontitis is common but fairly preventable. The cause is usually due to poor oral hygiene. Periodontitis can lead to tooth loss. It's a risk factor for heart and lung diseases. Symptoms include swollen, red and tender gums. Early stages are called gingivitis, where the gums become swollen and may bleed. More advanced form of periodontal disease is called periodontitis, during this the gums can pull away from the tooth, bone can be lost, and the teeth may loosen or fall out. Bad breath may also occur.

Periodontal disease is generally due to bacteria in the mouth that infects the tissue around the teeth. Factors that increase the risk of disease include smoking, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, family history, and certain medications. Diagnosis is by inspecting the gum tissue around the teeth both visually and with a probe and X-rays looking for bone loss around the teeth. Treatment includes professionally cleaning the pockets around teeth to prevent damage to the surrounding bone. Advanced cases may require surgery.

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