Diffusion is the process wherein the molecules merge as a result of their kinetic energy of random motion. It occurs in liquids and gases because their molecules move randomly. The molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration, down the concentration gradient, until the concentration equalizes throughout the medium.

Take a beaker filled with water. Add a few crystals of copper sulfate carefully and leave the unit undisturbed for some time. We can observe that the water in the beaker is uniformly coloured. In this experiment, both copper sulfate and water diffuse independently. Hence concentration gradient would be nothing other than the process by which particles known by the name of solutes travel through a solution from a higher particle numbered area to a lower-numbered area.

Since distribution occurs in a variety of conditions, diffusion can be classified into two major types: Simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion. However, there are more types of diffusion which are relevant in other disciplines of sciences such as atomic diffusion, Knudsen diffusion, kinesis, etc.

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