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Traditional Medicinal Plants of Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India

S. Rajagopal Reddy1, A. Madhusudhana Reddy1* and M. V .Suresh Babu2

1Department of Botany, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa-516003, Andhra Pradesh, India

2Department of Botany, Govt. College for Men (Autonomous), Kadapa-516004, AP, India

*Corresponding Author:
A. Madhusudhana Reddy
Department of Botany
Yogi Vemana University
Kadapa-516003
Andhra Pradesh, India
E-mail: [email protected]
 
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Abstract

The present study explores the traditional medicinal plants of Lankamalleswara wildlife sanctuary, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Objective: The prime objective of the study is to document the traditional medicinal plants used by tribal people inhabiting the sanctuary.
Methods:
The ethnobotanical studies carried out during 2013-15. The information was collected through interviews, discussions and observations. Many tribal pockets were visited to interact local people and gathered information about medicinal plants.
Results:
The present investigation revealed the medicinal properties of 96 species belonging to 88 genera under 47 families. The most cited family was Apocyanaceae (9) followed by Lamiaceae (6), Fabaceae (6), Malvaceae (5), Capparaceae (4), Rubiaceae (3), Combretaceae (3), Menispermaceae (3), Asteraceae (3), Convolvulaceae (3), Moraceae (3), Verbenaceae (3), (3), Euphorbiaceae (2), Amaranthaceae (2), Liliaceae (2), Caesalpinaceae (2), Cleomaceae (2), Solanaceae (2), Loganiaceae (2) and remaining families contributed one species.
Conclusion:
The study concludes that there is a urgent need to conserve the plant resources of study area from over exploitation and illegal trade of rare plants like Red sanders.

Keywords

Traditional plants, Lankamalleswara wildlife sanctuary, Phytomedicine, Ailments.

Introduction

Traditional medicine has been defined as the sum of the knowledge, skills and practices experiences indigenous to culture used in the maintenance of health as well in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment of physical and mental health. In developing countries especially rural areas the people depends mainly on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare. The indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants has been well documented in ancient Indian literature [1]. Traditional knowledge on medicine since the time of great sage Charaka has led to the discovery of many important drugs of modern age [2]. Charakasamhitha and Susruthasamhitha written by Charaka and Susrutha respectively have information regarding traditional medicinal plants and their therapeutic values [3]. In the modern days there has been increase in the demands of herbal products and plant based drugs across the world resulting in the over exploitation of medicinal plants. Habitat degradation, unscientific harvesting and over exploitation to meet the demands of medicinal plants have led to the extinction of plant species in the world.

According to report of all India Ethnobiological survey accomplished by Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India, there are over 8000 plant species that are being used by the local people. These plants are used Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy Systems of medicine [4]. In other words, there are about 300 families of the flowering plants, at least 250 plants are represented by India. Medicinal properties of few such plants have been reported but a good number of plants still used by local people are not explored. Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani systems of medicine provide good base for scientific exploration of medicinally important molecules from nature. The rediscovery of Ayurveda is a sense of redefining it is modern medicines. Traditional medicine has a long history of serving peoples all over the world. The ethnobotany provides a rich resource for natural drug research and development. In recent years, the use of traditional medicine information on plant research has again received considerable interest. The Western use of such information has also come under increasing scrutiny and the national and indigenous rights on these resources have become acknowledged by most academic and industrial researchers. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 80% of World population are relied on traditional medicine for primary healthcare [5]. However, only 25% of modern medicines are derived from plant products6.Even in USA, use of plants and phytomedicines has increased dramatically in the last two decades. It has been also reported that more than 50% of all modern drugs in clinical use are of natural products, many of which have been recognized to have the ability to include apoptosis in various cancer cells of human origin [7].

India is rich in biological diversity and nearly 550 tribal communities pertaining to 227 ethnic groups are inhabited. About 26 tribal communities are inhabiting in Andhra Pradesh. Different workers have explored and documented the ethnobotanical information from different parts of Andhra Pradesh. For the first time, Krishnamachari (1900) documented the use of leaves of Erythroxylum monogynum and roots of Aloe vera as food during paucity8. Hemadri (1976, 1981) reported the procurement of raw drug materials and tribal medicine for rheumatism [9-10]. Hemadri and Rao (1983, 1984) explored the plant species used for leucorrhoea, menorrhagia and jaundice [11-12]. Rao and Sreeramulu (1985) documented 52 ethnomedicinal plants used by Savaras, Jatapus and Gadabas from Srikakulam District [13]. Ramarao (1988) documented the data on ‘Ethnobotany of Eastern Ghats in Andhra Pradesh14. Reddy et al. (1991) collected information on 45 plant taxa in traditional system of medicine used by tribals of Kadapa District [15]. Rao and Prasad (1995) enlisted the ethnomedicine from Andhra Pradesh [16]. Reddy et al. (1996) documented the tribal medicine from Rutaceae [17]. Rajendran et al. (1996, 1997) provided the information on hepatic stimulant plants of Andhra Pradesh [18]. Jeevan and Raju (2001) described certain potential crude drugs used by tribes of Nallamalai for skin diseases [19]. Reddy and Subbaraju (2005) shortlisted the plants used as ethnomedicine from Maredumilli region of East Godavari District [20]. Reddy and Subbaraju (2005) studied the ethnomedicine for rheumatic diseases from Eastern Ghats [21]. Reddy at al. (2005) reported certain ethnobotanical orchids of Eastern Ghats [22]. Reddy at al. (2006a) investigated ethnobotanical uses for respiratory disorders in Eastern Ghats [23]. Savithramma et al (2007) reported the ethnobotanical plants used to treat asthma [24]. Rao et al. (2007) explored ethnobotanical importance of Pteridophytes used by Chenchus of Nallamalais [25]. Jeevan et al. (2007) recorded some rare and little-known medicinal plants from Nallamalais of Eastern Ghats [26] and Reddy et al. reported the traditional knowledge on wild food plants in the Andhra Pradesh [27]. Ratnam and Raju (2008a) enumerated the traditional medicine used by the adivasis of Eastern Ghats for bone fractures [28]. Suneetha and Reddi (2011) provided data on the 600 ethnomedicinal plants used by tribal people from East Godavari [29]. Rao et al. (2011) enumerated the ethnomedicinal properties of 62 plant species used by Gadaba tribes of Visakhapatnam District [30]. Rajagopal Reddy at al. (2011) surveyed and reported 60 ethnomedicinal plants from Seshachala hill range of Kadapa District [31]. Savithramma at al. (2012) reported 20 medicinal plants from Penchalakona forest area of Nellore District [32]. Suneetha et al. (2013) reported ethnomedicinal plants as remedy for jaundice by the tribals of East Godavari District [33]. Raju at al. (2014) documented 90 medicinal plants from hilly tract areas of East Godavari District [34]. Rao at al. (2014) observed usage of crude drugs in treatment of liver diseases by Chenchu tribes in Nallamalais [35]. Swapna (2015) has explored 30 ethnobotanical plants used by Yanadis from Kavali area of Nellore District [36]. Mastan et al. (2015) reported 38 liana species from Lankamalleswara wildlife sanctuary [37]. Omkar at al. (2015) reported 153 medicinal plants from Gundlabrahmeswaram wildlife sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh [38]. But information about traditional medicinal plants of this study area is not available, therefore the present study was undertaken.

STUDY AREA

The Lankamalleswara wildlife sanctuary is situated between 13º 50´ – 14º 20´ N latitude and 77º 51´ – 78º 50´ E longitude. In this, there are number of hills possessing diverse plant species. These hills are one of the important hill ranges of Kadapa District. A large extent of Kadapa dry forests include open and scrub forest type (85%), only few undisturbed and protected hill ranges support natural dry deciduous forests. The vegetation of the study area is varied depending upon the climate, altitude and other factors. According to Champion and Seth (1968) the hills include the following forest types. South Indian dry mixed deciduous forest, Red Sanders forest type, Hardvickia forest type and Scrub forests [39]. Within sanctuary many streams and canals pass through these forest hills. The forests in the fringe areas which are heavily used by human beings for pilgrimage, livestock grazing, indiscriminate cutting of trees, annual forest fire, soil erosion and illegal export of red sanders wood, while the interior forest areas are relatively free of human disturbance. The endemic species Pterocarpus santalinus witnessed rapid decline during last two decades due to illegal export. The sanctuary has relatively high abundance of wild animals compared to other forest areas of Kadapa District. The vegetation includes number of endemic, rare and threatened plants [40]. The tribal people live in hilly tracts, forest and naturally isolated areas. They are generally referred to as Adivasis, Adima Jati, Aboriginal, Girijan, Vanya Jati, and Vanavasi [41]. The tribal inhabitants of the study area mainly consist of Yerukalas, Sugalis and Yanadis. These tribal people depend on wild medicinal plants for the treatment of different diseases and ailments. They also collect non-timber forest products from the forest and sell them in Girijan cooperative stalls. The forest provides ample scope and socio-cultural activities of the tribes that live in adjacent areas.

METHODOLOGY

Since the tribal societies are store houses, accumulated experience and knowledge on indigenous vegetation, the present information is an outcome of Ehanobotanical studies carried out during 2013-15. The ethnobotanical information was collected through interviews, discussions and own observations [42-43]. Many tribal pockets were visited to interact with local people, local vaidyas and tribal doctors and gathered information about medicinal plants. In this way, a total of 95 persons were contacted for present study. The data was collected for the name of plant species used for treatment, parts used, disease cured, local name, mode of administration, plant habit etc. The interviews were preferably conducted in local language for the convenience of the respondents. Field visits were conducted along with the local people to document the medicinal properties of the plant species in that area. Plant species are categorized into their respective genera and families to understand the diversity of flora. The data was analyzed for number of species that can be used for the treatment of a particular disease and to check the number of diseases that can be cured by using a single species. The collected specimens were identified with the help of floras [44- 47].The voucher specimens were deposited in Yogi Vemana University herbarium, Kadapa. The botanical names were updated according to AGP III classification [48]. The plant species are arranged alphabetically with their botanical name, followed by local name, family, habit and mode of administration. (See Table No. 1)

Table 1. List of medicinal plants reported from Lankamalleswara wildlife sanctuary

S. No Botanical Name Local Name Family Habit Mode of administration
1 Abutilon indicum
(Linn.) Sweet
Adavibenda Malvaceae Shrub Leaf  paste applied for
toothache
2 Acalypha indica Klein
ex Willd.
Kuppi Euphorbiaceae Herb Leaf juice used as a lotion for
skin eruptions
3 Achyranthes aspera
Linn.
Uthareni Amaranthaceae Herb Leaf paste with honey used as
an external application for deep cuts by iron tools
4 Acorus calamus Linn. Vasakomma Araceae Herb Rhizome paste used as a peppermint for free from
cough
5 Aganosma cymosa
(Roxb.) G.Don
Paramalle Apocyanaceae Shrub Root paste applied externally
for snake bite
6 Alangium salvifolium
(L.f.) Wang
Oodaga Alangiaceae Tree Root bark soaked in a glass of water and  taken orally for
next day morning for stomach disorders
7 Aloe vera (Linn.)
Burm.f.
Kalabanda Xanthorrhoeacea
e
Shrub Tender leaf pulp used as a
lotion for foot cracks
8 Alternanthera sessilis
(Linn.) R.Br.
Ponnagantiaku Amaranthaceae Herb Tender twigs used as a curry
for eye diseases
9 Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. Nelavemu Acanthaceae Herb The whole plant ground with seeds of Strychnos, the extract heated and administered for
chest pain
10 Anisomeles indica
(Linn.)Kuntz.
Addabeera Lamiaceae Herb Stem ground with black pepper and the extract administered for malarial
fever
11 Anisomeles malabarica (Linn.) R.Br Magabeera Lamiaceae Herb Dried leaves are burnt and fumes spread out in home for
evil spirit and cold
12 Annona squamosa
Linn.
Sithapalam Annonaceae Shrub Leaf paste applied over the head before going to bath twice a week for fortnight for
free from lice
13 Aristolochia indica
Linn.
Nalla eswari Aristolochiaceae Herb Leaf decoction used for
indigestion
14 Asparagus racemosus
Willd.
Pilliteegalu Liliaceae Shrub Fresh peeled tubers
consumed daily once for one
month for female potency
15 Bacopa monnieri
(Linn.) Wettst.
Brahmi Scrophulariaceae Herb Whole plant used for venereal
diseases and scabies
16 Bauhinia vahli Wt. & Arn. Addaku Caesalpinaceae Liane Root bark extract mixed with goat milk and used as
aphrodisiac
17 Borreria hispida (Linn.) K.Schum Madanakattu Rubiaceae Herb Whole plant powder administered daily twice for a week for minimizes excess of
heat
18 Boswellia serrata
Roxb.ex Colebr
Guggilam Burseraceae Tree Tender leaves ground with turmeric and paste applied for
skin diseases
19 Butea monosperma
(Lam.) Taub.
Moduga Fabaceae Tree Root extract administered
orally for gastric troubles
20 Cadaba fruticosa Linn. Uttarasi chettu Capparaceae Shrub Root bark extract mixed with
sesamum oil and administered for antifertility
21 Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. Ponna chettu Clusiaceae Tree Seed paste used as an
external application for body swellings
22 Calycopteris floribunda
Lam.
Adavi jama Combretaceae Liane Dry leaf powder mixed with
milk used for diabetes
23 Canavalia gladiata
(Jacq.) DC.
Adavithamba Fabaceae Shrub Flower juice given orally to kill
intestinal worms
24 Cansjera rheedii Gmel. Adavi karedu Opiliaceae Straggler Stem bark crushed with onion
and extract administered for epilepsy and leucorrhoea
25 Capparis sepiaria Linn. Nalla uppi Capparaceae Straggler Stem extract administered
orally for rib muscle pain
26 C.zeylanica Linn. Pedda uppili Capparaceae Shrub Leaf crushed with pepper and
extract used for mouth ulcers
27 Cardiospermum
haalicacabum Linn.
Budda kakara Sapindaceae Herb Leaves ground with jiggery
and eaten as an appetizer
28 Carissa spinarum Linn. Chinna kalivi Apocyanaceae Shrub Gum dissolved in water and taken orally for urinary
disorders
29 Cassia fistula Linn Rela Caesalpinaceae Tree Leaf and powder paste used an external application for
skin eruptions
30 Cassia tora Linn. Pedda kasintha Caesalpinaceae Herb Leaf juice mixed with lemon juice taken orally for
stomachache
31 Chloroxylon swietenia
DC.
Billudu Flindersiaceae Tree Stem bark paste made into bolls and used as mosquito
repellent
32 Cleome gynandra Linn. Vaminta Cleomaceae Herb Leaf juice used as a lotion for
wounds
33 Cleome viscosa Linn. Kukkavaminta Cleomaceae Herb Leaf aroma inhale daily for
three days for free from fever
34 Cocculus hirsutus
(Linn.) Diels
Dusarateega Menispermaceae Climber Leaf paste contains cloth kept over the eyes for free from
reddening eyes
35 Combretum albidum
G.Don.
Yadara teega Combretaceae Liane Stem bark paste heated mildly and applied over ulcers and
wounds
36 Corollocarpus
epigaeus Hook.F
Nagadonda Cucurbitaceae Climber Tuber paste administered for
poisonous bites
37 Costus speciosus
(Koen.) Smith.
Bomma kachika Costaceae Herb Tuber paste mixed with milk and used orally for arthritis
pains
38 Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Jittegi Fabaceae Tree Leaf juice  used as eye drops
for eye irritation
39 Decalepis hamiltonii
Wt. & Arn.
Maredu kommulu Apocyanaceae Liane Fruits crushed with pepper
and extract administered for paralysis
40 Desmodium pulchellum
(Linn.)Benth
Deyyapaku Fabaceae Shrub Seed paste applied for snake bite
41 Diospyros melanoxylon
Roxb.
Tuniki Ebenaceae Tree Flower paste mixed with milk
and used for urinary disorders
42 Emilia sonchifolia
(Linn.) DC
Kundeti chevi aku Asteraceae Herb Tender tips decoction
administered daily once for eye diseases
43 Evolvulus alsinoides
Linn.
Vishnukantha Convolvulaceae Herb Whole plant powder with water taken for mental
disorders
44 Ficus benghalensis
Linn.
Marri chettu Moraceae Tree Latex used as a lotion for foot
cracks
45 F. racemosa Linn. Medi chettu Moraceae Tree Fresh fruits consumed daily
for gynecological disorders
46 F. religiosa Linn. Ravi chettu Moraceae Tree Fresh tender leaves with honey consumed daily for
easy fertilization in women
47 Gmelina asiatica Linn. Chundrukaya Verbenaceae Shrub Fresh fruit paste applied on
head for reduce hair falling
48 Gymnema sylvestre
(Retz.) R.Br
Podapatri Apocyanaceae Climber Dried leaf power mixed with water or milk administered
orally for diabetes
49 Helictres isora Linn. Gubatada Sterculiaceae Shrub Fruit powder applied for sores
50 Heliotropium indicum
Linn.
Telukondi
chettu
Boraginaceae Herb Leaf paste smeared over the
sting area for scorpion bite
51 Hemidesmus indicus
(Linn.) R.Br var. indicus
Sugandhi pala Periplocaceae Herb Root decoction administered for cardiac troubles and
jaundice
52 Hibiscus platanifolius Konda pathi Malvaceae Tree Leaf past mixed with heat
(Willd.) Sweet. water and bath for free from
rheumatic pains
53 Hugonia mystax Linn. Kakibeera Linaceae Shrub Root bark made into bolls and
used as anthelmintic
54 Hybanthus
enneaspermus (Linn.) Muell.
Ratnapurusha Violaceae Herb Whole plant paste applied for leucoderma
55 Hyptis suaveolens
(Linn.) Poit.
Seema tulasi Lamiaceae Herb Aerial parts are burnt and fumes inhaled for cold and
cough
56 Ichnocarpus frutescens
(L.)R.Br
Nalla teega Apocyanaceae Shrub Seed oil used for hair growth
57 Ipomoea hederifolia
Linn.
Kasiratnalu Convolvulaceae Herb Slightly warmed leaf paste used as an external
application for body pains
58 Ixora pavetta Andr. Korivi chettu Rubiaceae Tree Leaf decoction administered
orally daily twice for constipation
59 Leucas aspera (Willd.)
Link
Tummi Lamiaceae Herb Leaf aroma inhale for
headache and cold
60 Maerua oblongifolia
(Forsk.) A.Rich
Meruputeega Capparaceae Straggler Gum paste applied for dog
bite
61 Manihot esculenta
Crantz.
Karrapendalam Euphorbiaceae Shrub Burnt tubers are consumed
for general debility
62 Mimoisa pudica Linn Attipatti Mimosaceae Shrub Whole plant burnt and fumes
inhale for bronchitis
63 Morinda pubescens
J.E.Smith
Togaru Rubiaceae Tree Leaf decoction given orally for
loose motions
64 Ocimum canum Linn Kukka tulasi Lamiaceae Herb Leaf juice administered orally
with honey for fever
65 O.tenuiiflorum Linn Tulasi Lamiaceae Herb Fresh leaf juice administered with 2-4 drops of honey for
winter allergy
66 Opuntia dellenii (Ker Gawl.) Haw. Nagajamudu Cactaceae Shrub Flower paste with turmeric
and salt used as a lotion for ulcers
67 Pachygone ovata
Miers.
Peddadusara Menispermaceae Liane Unripe fruit paste plastered
over for bone fractures
68 Passiiflora foetida
Linn.
Jumiki Passifloraceae Climber Leaf paste used as external
application for skin eruptions
69 Pavonia zeylanica
(Linn.) Cav
Karubenda Malvaceae Shrub Stem bark paste made into pills and orally administered
to women for conception
70 Pergularia daemia
(Forsk.)Chiov.
Juttapaku Apocyanaceae Climber Slightly warmed leaf paste
applied over the swellings
71 Physalis angulata Linn. Budda busara Solanaceae Herb Fruits are consumed to
dissolve stones in kidney
72 Plumeria alba Linn. Devaganneru Apocyanaceae Tree Latex used as a lotion for
sprains
73 Pongamia pinnata
(Linn.)Pierre
Kanuga Fabaceae Tree Root bark juice used for insect
bite
74 Portulaca oleracea
Linn.
Payalaku Portulacaceae Herb Leaves used as a curry for
general debility
75 Premna latifolia Roxb. Konda manga Verbenaceae Tree Dry leaf powder with coconut
oil applied for dandruff
76 Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Yegisa Fabaceae Tree Wood extract administered
daily twice for minimizing diabetes
77 Rauvolfia serpentina
(Linn.) Benth.
Sarpagandhi Apocyanaceae Shrub Root paste used for hypertension and decoction administered orally for
intestinal disorders
78 Rivea  hypocrateriformis
(Desr.) Choisy.
Boddi teega Convolvulaceae Shrub Root decoction used for fever
79 Santalum album Linn. Sri Gandham Santalaceae Tree Wood paste applied for
herpes and skin eruptions
80 Sida acuta Burm.f. Parasika Malvaceae Shrub Whole plant paste is applied
externally for wounds
81 Smilax zeylanica Linn. Pirangi chekka Smilacaceae Climber Root paste used as an
external application for body swellings
82 Solanum surattense
Burm.
Nelavakudu Solanaceae Shrub Seeds burnt fumes are pulling
for free from rotting of teeth
83 Strychnos nux-vomica
Linn.
Musti Loganiaceae Tree Seed paste administered
orally for dyspepsia
84 Strychnos potatorum
L.f
Chillangi Loganiaceae Tree Stem bark paste with milk
used to cure asthma
85 Syzygium cumini (Wt.)
Walp.
Neredu Myrtaceae Tree Root paste applied for
rheumatic pains
86 Terminalia chebula
Retz.
Nalla karaka Combretaceae Tree Stem bark paste applied for
bone fractures
87 Thespesia populnea
(Linn.) Sol.ex Corr.
Gangaravi Malvaceae Tree Root bark powder mixed with
milk and administered orally for piles
88 Tinospora cordifolia
(Willd.) Miers.
Tippateega Menispermaceae Climber Leaf paste made into bolls and
used as Mosquito repellent
89 Tridox procumbens
Linn.
Bellapaku Asteraceae Herb Leaf decoction used for
menstrual disorders
90 Triumfetta
rhomboidea Jacq.
Kustumokka Tiliaceae Shrub Leaf paste administered for
cooling effect
91 Tylophora indica
(Burm.f.) Merr.
Kukkapala Apocyanaceae Climber Stem crushed with pepper and made into bolls applied
for leprosy
92 Ventilago
maderaspatana
Yerra surugudu Rhamnaceae Liane Seed powder administered
orally for jaundice
Gaertn.
93 Vitex negundo Linn. Tellavavili Verbenaceae Shrub Leaf paste applied externally
for headache
94 Wattakaka volubilis
(L.f) Stap.
Kalisaku Apocyanaceae Shrub Bark powder with milk
administered for purgative
95 Wrightia tinctoria
R.Br.
Palavareni Apocyanaceae Tree Bark powder used for blisters
96 Xanthium strumarium
Linn.
Marulamatangi Asteraceae Herb Leaf paste with water
administered orally for dysentery

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The present study documented the medicinal uses of plants used by local tribal people in the Lankamalleswara wildlife sanctuary. The results are presented in table 1. During the survey it was found that most of the tribal people use medicinal plants for various therapeutic purposes in their day to day life for primary healthcare. A large number of informants (62%) were educated and remaining (38%) were illiterate and they were keen to provide the information and transferring the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants from one generation to another generation.

The information was collected from 95 respondents both men and women. It was observed that traditional knowledge is related to the age and sex of an individual. Generally old age people have much information about medicinal plants due to their personal experience and interaction with the plants. A survey was conducted in Tamilnadu which revealed that old age people have sound knowledge about medicinal plants as compared to young people [49]. This corroborated with our results. But in this study area, young people are most sensitive to conserve their knowledge and plant resources. The present investigation revealed the medicinal properties of 96 species belonging to 88 genera under 47 families. Among them 30 were herbs, 25 shrubs, 26 trees, 6 lianes, 7 climbers and 3 stragglers respectively. The most cited family was Apocyanaceae (9) followed by Lamiaceae (6), Fabaceae (6), Malvaceae (5), Capparaceae (4), Rubiaceae (3), Combretaceae (3), Menispermaceae (3), Asteraceae (3), Convolvulaceae (3), Moraceae (3), Verbenaceae (3), (3), Euphorbiaceae (2), Amaranthaceae (2), Liliaceae (2), Caesalpinaceae (2), Cleomaceae (2), Solanaceae (2), Loganiaceae (2) and remaining families contributed one species.

The uses of aboveground plant parts for medicinal purposes were found to be higher (84%) than the underground (16%) plant parts. Leaf was the most widely used plant part accounting for 36 plant species in total of 97 reported plants, followed by root ( 11), stem bark (8), fruit (6), seed (6), tubers (4 ), stem (3), root bark (3 ), flower (3 ), aerial parts (3), gum (2), wood (2), latex (2) and rhizome from one species. The whole plant parts of Andrographis paniculata, Bacopa monnieri, Borreria hispida, Evolvulus alsinoides, Hybanthus enneaspermus, Mimoisa pudica, Sida acuta were found to have a medicinal value. The remedies are prepared in the form of paste, extract, decoction, powder, infusion etc. Most of the herbal remedies were taken in the form of paste.

The plant parts were crushed and made into paste for drug administration. Majority of remedies were taken orally followed by external application. In external application the drug applied over the area of diseases. In some cases the remedies were taken along with other combinations like milk, honey, pepper, salt, lemon etc. This addition of other substances to drugs enhances the efficacy of herbal remedies or to make the remedy as undesirable taste when taken orally. Tribal people use substitute of one medicinal plant in the place of other if that particular plant is not available. The information on plant species includes scientific name, local name, family, habit and mode of administration of drug presented in table. Despite their high medicinal importance, the use of traditional medicinal plants is declining day by day which may be because of the availability of the fast relieving medicines in the market. There are many plant species which were used by the natives in earlier times but are not in use today. This may be due to lack of knowledge of their utility as traditional medicinal plants.

CONCLUSION

In ancient times, human beings lived in the nature and attributed divine qualities to it. It is fact that natural forests are progressively shrinking due to overexploitation, it obligatory to investigate scientifically and document our floristic wealth in order to use the same. Ethnobotanical research can provide a wealth of information regarding both past and present relationships between plants and the traditional societies. Indigenous herbal treatment is a part of the culture and dominant mode of therapy in most of the developing countries. Many medicinal plants occurring have yet to be subjected to rigorous chemical screening and pharmacological investigation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to thank all the informants for their co-operation in documentation of medicinal properties of the plant species. To the forest official of Andhra Pradesh for giving the permission to field visits and especially Sri Nagaraju, DFO, Red Sanders Flying Squad, Kadapa.

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