The Invertebrate Antibody Sea star lymphocytes

Nabanita Mukherjee*

Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Colorado, USA

*Corresponding Author:

Nabanita Mukherjee
Department of Dermatology, Anschutz Medical Campus, Colorado, USA, E-mail:

Received date: July 20, 2020; Accepted date: July 25, 2020; Published date: July 30, 2020

Citation: Nabanita M (2020) The Invertebrate Antibody- Sea star lymphocytes. Clin Immunol Infect Dis Vol. 4 No.2: e2.

Copyright:© 2020 Nabanita M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Many researchers don’t believe in our works: they speak we are wrong when we evoke the Invertebrate Antibody...BUT:

A incredible range of experiments achieved in our laboratory in current years have showed this hypothesis, displaying that the axial organ cells of the sea-supermegacelebrity capin a position to mount a mobile and humoral reaction having a number of the traits of vertebrate immune system.

We have determined, within the past,, the sea star lymphocytes (B and T sea star lymphocytes : those cells of 4-5μ in diameter are smaller than Vertebrate lymphocytes

And ... We determined currently the IPA (Invertebrate Primitive Antibody) with the sea star IGKAPPA gene with IG sites (Meta Gene 2013).

Therefore genomic facts assert the proof of primitive antibody in Echinodermata.

Furthermore, we discover MHC genes class I and class II in 2019 and Fab gene, Fc receptor gene in those Invertebrates. Antibody, Sea Star Lymphocytes, IGKAPPA(IgK), Gene

Today we envisage Immunology with a brand new light. IT’S TIME TO EVOLVE! We have a sea star Ig kappa gene.

The sea star Igkappa (IgK) gene could be very high within the phylogeny of the immune system of animals.

It indicates already two Ig sites.

It indicates already two Ig sites! The varieties of Igkappa genes are all found in vertebrates, they proportion much information with the sea star, such as the presence of Ig sites.

The upkeep of the Igkappa gene deals with and now no longer treated sea stars is an exceptional possibility for in addition experiments. It is crucial to observe that the Igkappa chain V-III region HAH of Tupaia chinensis is situated (within the assumptions in the back of the idea of evolution) among the IgKCP (Igkappa chain precursor) V-II region (RPMI/133) and IgKCP V-IV region/121.

In addition, the destinée of members of the IgKappa (IgK) gene family with conserved practical characters, suggest that the sea star IgK gene has developed previous to the evolutionary. Divergence among Invertebrate and Vertébrales: It should be claimed.

On the alternative hand, the invention of an Fc receptor gene, of a Fab gene, in Asterias rubens genome corroborate the presence of the primitive Invertebrate antibody in asterids (IPA).

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