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The Impact of Plant-Derived Food Grade Substances (PDFGS) on Respiratory Viruses: (A Systematic Review of Non-Clinical) Studies

Abstract

Human nutrition is majorly made up of several classes of phytochemicals some of which are potentially active against human pathogenic viruses. This review aimed at finding out the impact of natural food plants on respiratory viral infections. Food that human consume is composed of many phytochemical constituents which have activity against human pathogenic viruses. Science Direct Academic Research Database and PUBMED databases were explored with keywords programmed to retrieve articles that investigated the effect of plantderived food grade substances (PDFGS) on the activities of human pathogenic viruses. This research evaluated the effect of PDFGS in the management of Pathogenic conditions including rhinoviruses, enteroviruses (Orthomyxoviridae), Influenza viruses, parainfluenza, metapneumoviruses, SARS-CoV-2, respiratory syncytial viruses (paramyxoviridae), coronaviruses (coronaviridae)and several other adenoviruses using mouse models and cell lines. PDFGS are proposed to interferes with different stages of the pathological processes involved in respiratory viruses including cell entry, replication, viral release and viralinduced dysregulation of cellular homeostasis and functions; consequently, leading to the reduction of virus titer, virus-induced cellular destruction and enhancing the host cell survival. The plantderived food grade substances possess secondary metabolites/ phytochemical components with potent activity against respiratory viral infection. These secondary metabolites include flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, lectins, vitamin D, Curcumin, glycosides like glycyrrhizin, acetoside, geniposide and iridoid glycosides. Again, herbal tea such as guava tea, green tea and black tea also have anti-pathogenic activity against respiratory viruses in vitro. Therefore, this review supports an increase in the consumption of foods rich in PDFGS such as legume, fruits, fatty fish etc. in other to ameliorate respiratory viral infections.

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