Survey of Some Common Medicinal Plants Used in Eritrean Folk Medicine

Yemane B, Medhanie G and Surender Reddy K*

Department of Biology, College of Science, Eritrea Institute of Technology, Eritrea

*Corresponding Author:
Surender Reddy K
Department of Biology
College of Science
Eritrea Institute of Technology, Eritrea
Tel: 002917145811
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: October 20, 2017; Accepted Date: October 25, 2017; Published Date: October 31, 2017

Citation: Yemane B, Medhanie G, Surender Reddy K (2017) Survey of Some Common Medicinal Plants Used in Eritrean Folk Medicine. Am J Ethnomed Vol.4 No.2:14

 
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Abstract

Sample survey was conducted by the researchers in a particular designated administrative area of two Zobas of the State of Eritrea, to know the type of medicinal plants used by the people. They used by different occasions of medicinal plants and its common names were enclosed, for leaves, roots, stems, flower/ buds, and even seeds for the treatment either in raw form or in extracted form. They shared their experiences in healing the ailments of different age groups and have some trust on such plant extractions rather than in modern medicines. They have shown good results and have healing properties, as the survey certified. Hence, conservation is an utmost important for such medicinal plants in modern world.

Keywords

Herbal plants; Traditional; Antimicrobial; Diuretic; Ailment

Introduction

Ethnobotanical studies are often significant in revealing locally important plant species especially for the discovery of crude drugs. Right from its beginning, the documentation of traditional knowledge, especially on the medicinal uses of plants, has provided many important drugs of modern day [1]. According to World Health Organization report more than 80% of the people in Africa depend on traditional medicine for their health care needs [2]. With the emergence of new diseases and drug resistance to infections such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, diarrheal diseases and skin problems; traditional medicine should be given more attention in modern research and development [3]. Because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity, natural products, either as pure compounds or as standardized plant extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads. Now with 78% of the new chemical entities being natural or natural product-derived molecules, there has been a promising alternative treatment of infectious disease using medicinal plants Mariita [3], sexual contagious diseases such as HIV/AIDS for the treatment by using medicinal plants.

Recently, various plants are used as a subject to medical experiment. In particular, herbal plants are recognized as one of the intriguing subjects from which the extracts can be used in health care setting for future purpose. Nevertheless, for the reason that Agricultural expansion, Eritrean society has a long history of practicing traditional/herbal medicine that also has links to cultural values and beliefs. In this context, traditional medicine is concerned with types of medical treatment and practices that are based on customary knowledge. Owning to poor health-care facilities in rural Eritrea, a great majority of the population are still reliant on traditional medicine, as the study indicated. Traditional medical practices are quite varied based on cultural diversity. While a majority of traditional healers deal with human diseases, some also specialize in the treatment of animal diseases, disease prevention, and the promotion of spiritual and physical well-being of community members [4].

Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants in the high lands of Eritrea is transferred from the older people to younger generations at household level and this knowledge is not ongoing in written form, so that their losses or distortion at every transfer is inevitable [5,6]. According to Tecleab et al. [7], Ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Zoba Maekel and Zoba Semenawi Keih Bahri. The survey includes some villages and some towns such as: Asmara, Belza, Shegrini, Betgirgish, Areberubu, Adi guadad, Maihinzi, and Gihn-dae. These areas are inhibited by Tigrna, These areas are inhibited by Tigrna, Tigre, and Saho ethnic groups. Information was obtained using digital record, free-listing, semistructured and open-ended interviews with traditional healers, community elders, and mothers. Nine medicinal plants that used to treat diseases associated with bacteria were identified and the study justifies the traditional use of the plants in Eritrean traditional medicine.In spite of the vast role and important ethnobotanical contributions of medicinal plants in the primary health care, limited works have so far been done in the country [6,8]. This study has therefore been initiated to document the plants used in the traditional medical practices of the Eritrean people together with the associated ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge and practices.

Study Area

Ethnobotanical survey was conducted in two Zoba Maekel and Zoba Semenawi Keih Bahri, of the administrative areas called as Zobas, of the State of Eritrea. The survey includes some important villages and some towns where more than 10,000 populations were inhabitants of that particular area and the places were: Asmara, Belza, Shegrini, Betgirgish, Areberubu, Adi guadad, Maihinzi, and Gihn-dae. These areas are inhibited by Tigrna, Tigre, and Saho ethnic groups. Information was obtained using digital record, free-listing, semi-structured and open-ended interviews with traditional healers, community elders, and mothers. More medicinal plants that used to treat diseases associated with bacteria were identified and the study justifies the traditional use of the plants in Eritrean traditional medicine.

Objective of the Study

The general objective of this research is to prepare a survey of the medicinal plants used by the folk of the designated research areas of the two Zobas of the State of Eritrea.

• The type of plants used by the people of that region

• The type of extracts of the plant parts used by them

• The healing properties/therapy of such plant crude extracts

Significance of Study

• To survey of different medicinal plants used by the people of Eritrea in the research area of the two Zobas.

• Promote the discovery of new drugs to cure for certain dreaded diseases

• Help in the conservation of such plants

• It can also be used as reference area for such plants for further studies

Materials and Methods

Plant collection

The stems, leaves, flowers, roots, barks etc. of such plants were studies in and also collected from the two Zobas of the State of Eritrea. The plant samples were identified and authenticated in the Department of Biology, Herbarium in EIT, as the list enclosed.

Data collection

The people of that region were, by asking some oral questions, questionnaire and by interviewing them in using the medicinal plants and the type of plant parts, so that to get a correct information about medicinal plants, and how the healing process was noticed. After thorough investigation, then the researchers got some conclusions. It was noted down as a medicinal plant. Some of the plants were identified, pressed, dried on the spot and some were brought to the Herbarium Lab, of Eritrea Institute of technology and documented for further studies.

Results and Discussion

Plant extracts are paying much attention in these days because of side effects and were experimenting with different diseases, healing and finally concluding that this plant will be cured a particular disease. Hence, people were directed and gradually shifting towards popular plant extracts for biologically active ingredients to cure bodily ailments and plays a vital role. Survey was conducted, from the two Zobas, and the type of plants are using for healing them heal bodily ailments. It was reported that all the plants in the tabular form for using different plant extracts such as leaf, stem, flower, buds, barks and seeds for the therapeutic purposes in the Zoba [9]. People of the two Zobas were warmly responded that the plant products and extracts were completely healed but took over a period of long time. There were no side effects as they cited for using such plants. Many research works were conducted on different plants and still it is in the infancy to study [5]. Further extensive study is required experimentally for each medicinal plant for its biological activity, so that we can conclude that a particular plant will heal the ailment caused by either bacterial, viral or by wounds.

In this study, 256 plant species of medicinal importance were observed and some were recorded and documented for its various applications (Table 1). Most of these medicinal plants are harvested from natural stands followed by home garden. They are also found growing sporadically in natural forest, hills, mountains, churches, home gardens, rivers and roadsides [10]. They are the predominant sources of traditional medicine for traditional healers and even there is no allopathic treatments of the rural areas. Shrubs were found to be the most dominant growth forms in the preparation of traditional remedies followed by herbs, trees, climbers and trailing herbs of this region. Like in other parts of the State of Eritrea people were using as a traditional medicine for both animal and human diseases.

S.No Scientific name Family name Localname Plant parts Ailment type
1 Acacia asak  Fabaceae Suhug  Flowers Skin diseases and Tooth ache
2 Acacia ehrenbergiana Fabaceae Hal-aqba Barks Tooth ache and Ear infection
3 Acacia etbaica Fabaceae Seraw  Leaves Constipation, and Ring worm infection
4 Acacia laeta Fabaceae Qenteb Leaves Diabetes and Antibiotics
5 Acacia lahai Fabaceae Lehai Leaves Taeniacide and Rheumatism
6 Acacia mellifera Fabaceae Tselim qenteb Barks Evil eyes and Diabetes
7 Acacia nilotica Fabaceae Ghered  Leaves Abdominal pain and Anti-emetic
8 Acacia oerfota Fabaceae Ghemrot  Leaves Eye disease and Evil eyes
9 Acacia oregona Fabaceae Alaa Leaves Easing labor and Back pain 
10 Acacia polyacantha Fabaceae Ghomoro Leaves Rheumatism and Segri
11 Acacia Senegal Fabaceae Tsaeda qenteb  Gums Diabetes and Abdominal pain
12 Acacia seyal Fabaceae Keih chea Barks Diabetes and Hypertension
13 Acacia sieberiana Fabaceae Cheare Roots Abdominal helmentes and Scabies
14 Acacia tortilis Fabaceae Alaa Leaves Snake and Scorpion bite and Gonfi
15 Achyranthes aspera Amaranthaceae Mechelo  Leaves Tonsillitis and Nails inflammation.
16 Acokanthera schimperi Apocynaceae Mebtae Leaves and Stems Skin wound, Eye infection 
17 Adansonia digitata Bombacaceae Duma  Barks Anti abortion and eye infection
18 Aerva lanata Amaranthaceae Hamli gobo  All parts Gerefta, febrile
19 Agave sisalana Agavaceae Eqaa Latex Diarrhea and Ear infection
20 Ajuga integrifolia Lamiaceae Ango-guasot Stems Malaria, Hepatitis, Dysentery and Swelling
21 Albizia amara Fabaceae Chigono Leaves Blood pressure and Anti-lice
22 Albizia anthelmintica Fabaceae Messenna Leaves Abdominal helminthes, Diarrhea and Burns
23 Allium cepa Alliaceae Shiguerti tseada Bulbs TB, Hepatitis 
24 Allium sativum Alliaceae Shiguerti tseada  Bulbs Hypertension, Malaria and Asthma
25 Aloe camperi Aloaceae Sandae-ere  Latex Malaria, Hepatomegaly and Splenomegaly
26 Aloe elegance Aloaceae Ere  Latex Diabetics and Abdominal pain
27 Aloe macrocarpa Aloaceae Tsebir  Latex Impotency, Malaria and Easing labor
28 Aloe percarsa Aloaceae Ere  Latex Anthrax, Malaria
29 Amaranthus sylvestri Amaranthaceae Bernahayo Leaves Back pain, Tooth pain and Anti-helminthes
30 Annona muricata Annonaceae Anona  Leaves and Fruits Kill lice, Bedbugs and Gastritis
31 Anogeissus leiocarpus Combreataceae Hanse Leaves Anthrax, Hepatitis
32 Apium graveolnese Apiaceae Sodieno Roots and Seeds Rheumatism, Asthma and Bladder infection
33 Argemone mexicana Papaveraceae Dander  Latex Antibiotics and Cataracts
34 Artemisia annua Asteraceae Artimesia Leaves Bladder infection, Hepatitis and Malaria
35 Asparagus africanus Asparagaceae Chemara-ansti  All parts Skin lesion and Heart diseases
36 Aspilia mosambicensis Asteraceae Aspilia  Leaves Kidney diseases and Bleeding after delivery
37 Astragalus atropilosulus Fabaceae Tetem-agazen  Barks Hemorrhoids, Itching and Diarrhea
38 Avicenna marina Verbenaceae Mangrove Leaves Ulcers, Diabetics, Asthma and Cancer,
39 Azadirachta indica Meliaceae Nim  Seeds Hemorrhoids, Fungal and Insects
40 Balanites aegyptiaca Balanitaceae Meqie  Leaves and Fruits Head ache, Abdominal pain and Bilharzias’
41 Barbeya oleoides Barbeyaceae Hirmi-tel Leaves Wound infection
42 Barleria eranthemoides Acanthaceae Eshok-ziebie Leaves Eye problem, Tonsillitis and Eczema
43 Becium grandiflorum Lamiaceae Tahebeb  All parts Cramps, Anti-inflammatory and Malaria
44 Bersama abyssinica Melianthaceae Bersama  Stems Heart disease and Tape-worm
45 Bidens pilosa Asteraceae Tsegogot  Barks Gerefta and Gonfii
46 Boscia angustifolia Capparidaceae Kermed Roots Snake-bite, Gastritis and Gonfii
47 Boscia salicifolia Capparidaceae Oba  Barks Scabies, Bloating and Choilynichites
48 Boscia senegalensis Capparidaceae Hamta Roots Snake and Scorpion venom
49 Boswellia papyrifera Burseraceae Meqer Gums Fever, Tranquilizer and Evil spirit
50 Brassica nigra Brassicaceae Hamli-adrii  All parts Cough and Fungus
51 Brassica olearacea Brassicaceae Cawlo All parts Gastritis, Rheumatism and Asthma
52 Brucea antidysenterica Simaroubaceae Anderguhila  Roots Diarrhea, Evil eyes and Rabies
53 Buddleia polystachya Loganiaceae Metere  All parts Evil eye, Segri and Insects
54 Cadabafarinosa Capparidaceae Bersenai Leaves Ophthalmia, Insect repellant and Body pains
55 Cadia purpurea Fabaceae Qetin-ome Leaves Wound infection and nail inflammation
56 Calotropis procera Asclepiadaceae Ghindae Latex Hemorrhoids, Wound and leprosy
57 Calpurnia aurea Fabaceae Htseawets  Leaves Snake and Scorpion venom and leprosy
58 Capparis decidua Capparidaceae Sorob Roots Chest pains, Jaundice and Malaria
59 Capparis tomentosa Capparidaceae Andel Leaves Cold, Wound infection and Purgative
60 Carica papaya Caricaceae Papayo  Seeds Diabetes, Amoeba and Typhoid fever
61 Caralluma speciosa Asclepediaceae Ango-harmaz  Leaves Burns and Wound infection
62 Carissa spinarum Apocynaceae Agam  Barks Malaria, Splenomegaly and Hepatomegaly
63 Casimiroa edulis Rutaceae Cazmir Fruits Menstrual disorder and Constipation
64 Capsicum annuum Solanaceae Gue-berbere Fruits Arm-stream, Alopecia and Hemorrhoids
65 Celtis africana Ulmaceae Chebaale  Leaves Rheumatism and Lung disease
66 Chenopodium album Chenopodiacea Moq-moqo Leaves Choilynichitis, Burns and Wounds
67 Cicer arietinum Fabaceae Ater  Seeds Malaria and Diarrhea
68 Cichorium endiva Asteraceae Shikoria  All parts Diabetes and wound infection
69 Cinnamomum zeylanicum Lauraceae Qarfa All parts Rheumatism, Diabetes and Blood circulation
70 Cissus quadrangularis Vitaceae Alqe  All parts Anti-fungal and insects
71 Cissus rotundifolia Vitaceae Me’ar-mitsu Leaves and Fruits Antibiotic, Gonfi and Antifungal
72 Citrus limon Rutaceae Lemin Fruits Gastritis and Digestion problem
73 Citrus sinensis Rutaceae Brtukan  Fruits Cough and Antibiotic
74 Citrus reticulata Rutaceae Manderin   Fruits Diarrhea, Helminthic infection
75 Clematis simensis Ranunculaceae Qemida  Leaves Leishmaniasis and Eczema
76 Clerodendrum myricoides Verbenacea Sur-betri  Leaves Dysentery and Abdominal helmets
77 Clutia lanceolata Euphorbiaceae Etan belalito Latex Gastritis, Diabetes and Rheumatism 
78 Coffea arabica Rubiaceae Bun  Leaves Eye diseases, Snake poison and Burns
79 Combretum aculeatum Combretaceae Kuto  Flowers Conjunctivitis and Ear infection
80 Combretum fragrans Combretaceae Tenkeleba Barks Lung disease and Constipation
81 Combretum molle Combretaceae Sesewe/ Abelwa Leaves Jaundice and Epidermal wounds
82 Cometes abyssinica Carryphyllaceae Saerosaero All parts Sun strike, Insects and Viral infection
83 Commelina africana Commelinaceae Gellif  Leaves Skin disease and Hypertension
84 Commicarpus pedunculosus Nyctaginaceae Ezeni-taewa Leaves Scorpion and Snake bite
85 Commiphora africana Burseraceae Anqua Stems Expel the placenta after birth and Gastritis
86 Cannabis sativa Cannabidaceae Etse-fares Leaves Bronchial Asthma and Segri
87 Cordia africana Boraginaceae Awhii Leaves and Stems Abdominal pain and wound infection
88 Cordia monoica Boraginaceae Awhii –tsergah  Leaves Wound infection and Sun strikes
89 Coriandrum sativum Apiaceae Tsaeqda Leaves Diuretic,Fever and Hypertension 
90 Croton macrostychus Euphorbiaceae Tambuk  Leaves Head ache, Eye diseases and Ascariasis
91 Cucumis dipsaceus Cucurbitaceae Hafaflo  Roots Abdominal Helminthes and Diarrhea
92 Cucurbita pepo Cucurbitaceae Duba  Seeds Intestinal warms, Diuretics and Lactation
93 Cymbopogon citratus Poaceae Lemon –grass  Roots Fever of domestic animals and Ascariasis
94 Cynodon dactylon Poaceae Romadi Roots Snake poison and Skin crack
95 Cynoglossum lanceolatum Boraginaceae Teag-teag  Roots and leaves Abdominal pain and Ear-infection
96 Cyphostemmaadenocoule Vitaceae Hareg temen  Leaves Snake poison and Amoeba
97 Dalbergia melanoxylon Fabaceae Zebe  Roots Snake poison and Insect repellants
98 Datura stramonium Solanaceae Mezerbae  Leaves and Stems Rabies, Dandruff and Tooth ache
99 Daucus carota Apiaceae Carroti Tubers Diabetes, Gastritis and Eye clearness.
100 Delonix elata Fabaceae Refna/ Ref  Leaves Laxative and purgative
101 Dichrostachys cinerea Fabaceae Ghonoq  Leaves Impotency 
102 Diospyros abyssinica Ebenaceae Tselimo Barks Fungus and Termite resistant
103 Diospyros mespiliformis Ebenaceae Aye Barks Fungus and Termite resistant
104 Dobera glabra Salvadoraceae Gharsai  Fruits Intestinal parasites and Rheumatism
105 Dodonaea angustifolia Sapindaceae Taheses  Leaves Abdominal Helminthes and Dandruff
106 Dombeya torrida Sterculiaceae Sonqua Roots Asthma, Cough and Skin Wound
107 Dracaena schizanta Lilaceae Termo Eqa Leaves Ear ache and Chronic ulcer
108 Embelia schimperi Myrsinaceae Enkoko Leaves Taeniacide and Insecticides
109 Eragrosis teff Poaceae Taff  Seeds Anemia and Constipation
110 Erythrina abyssinica Fabaceae Zuwawue  Barks Tooth pain, Fever and Gastrointestinal
111 Eucalyptus camaldulensis Myrtaceae Qeieh-kelamitos Leaves Cough, Antibiotic and Insecticide
112 Eucalyptus globulus Myrtaceae Tseada Kelamitoes  Leaves Diabetes, Cough, Rheumatism and Gonfii
113 Euclea racemosa Ebenaceae Kileaw  Roots Malaria, Hepatitis and Purgative
114 Eugenia carophyllata Myrtaceae Qnefer Barks Emetic, Tooth ache, TB, and Menstruation
115 Euphorbia abyssinica Euphorbiaceae Qolqual Latex Abdominal pain, Hepatitis and Antibiotic
116 Euphorbia candelabrum Euphorbiaceae Qolqual Latex Wound healing and Malaria
117 Euphorbia nubica Euphorbiaceae Be’rir-aha Latex Kidney problem and Insecticides
118 Euphorbia polyacantha Euphorbiaceae Mezba Latex Asthma, leshmaniasis
119 Euphorbia prostrata Euphorbiaceae Tseba dmu Latex Abdominal pain, Hepatitis and Antibiotic
120 Euphorbia tirucalli Euphorbiaceae Qenchibe Latex Abdominal pain, skin diseases and Warts
121 Ficus carica Moraceae Beles telian Leaves Eczema, alopecia, Insecticides and Malaria
122 Ficus glumosa Moraceae Cheqemte  Fruits Wound, Jaundice and Snake bite
123 Ficus sycomorus Moraceae Saghla  Fruits Loss of weight, Eczema and Evil eyes
124 Ficus thoningii Moraceae Shibaka Fruits Itching and Rabies
125 Ficus vasta Moraceae Daero  Fruits Internal swell of abdomen
126 Flaveria trinervia Asteraceae D'kha nqel  All parts Insecticides and Cough
127 Foeniculum vulgare Apiaceae Shelan  Leaves Cough, Abdominal pain and Obesity
128 Flueggia virosa Euphorbiaceae Harmazo Roots Malaria, Pneumonia and Diarrhea
129 Grewia ferrugenia Tiliaceae Tsenqua Stems Hemorrhage and Endoparasites
130 Grewia flavescens Tiliaceae Mosoqua Leaves Intestinal worms
131 Grewia mollis Tiliaceae Ova Leaves Burns and Evil eyes
132 Grewia tenax Tiliaceae Serneg Barks Delivery of the placenta
133 Grewia villosa Tiliaceae Habene Stems Burns and Sun strike
134 Guizotia abyssinica Asteraceae Nihug Seeds  Throat sore, Bone fracture and Myalgia
135 Heteromorpha arborescens Apiaceae Mirkus-zibie All parts Relive headache and breathlessness.
136 Heliotropium cinerascens Boraginaceae Amam-gemel Leaves Tonsillitis, Dandruff and Ring warm
137 Hibiscus eriospermus Malvaceae Merqua Roots Asthma and Tooth ache
138 Hibiscus macranthus Malvaceae Tsegot  Roots Asthma and Tooth ache
139 Hibiscus rosasinensisi Malvaceae Tsighereda  Flowers Tape warm and Gastritis
140 Hordeum vulgare Poaceae Sgem  Seeds  Digestion problems and Bone setting
141 Hyphaenethebaica Arecaceae Arkobkobai  Fruits Gastritis and Insecticides
142 Hypoestes forskaolii Acanthaceae Debe-awald  Leaves Gastritis, Diabetes and Anemia
143 Indigofera arrecta Fabaceae Elam-wekaria  Leaves Sun strike, Gerefta and Dyspepsia
144 Jacaranda mimosifolia Bignoniaceae Palasandro  Roots Evil eye and Diarrhea 
145 Jasminum gradiflorum Oleaceae Habi-tselim  Leaves Increases lactation and Tape warm
146 Juniperus procera Cupressaceae  Tsihdi  Roots  Ringworm, Laxative and Stomach worms
147 Justicia cordata Acanthaceae Suu'da  Leaves Warts and Bloating
148 Justicia schimperiana Acanthaceae Suu'da  Leaves Over-sweating, fever and Madness
149 Kalanchoe marmorata Crassulaceae Saniaco  Leaves Cold, Intestinal parasites and Burns
150 Kigelia africana Bignoniaceae Mederba  Fruits Purgative, Dysentery and Spider disease
151 Kniphofia isoetifolia Asphodolaceae Shiguerti z'bie Bulb Antibiotics, Evil eyes and Abscess
152 Lannea fructicosa Anacardiaceae D'gdgna  Leaves and Stems Sun-strike, Evil-eye and Retain placenta
153 Lantana camara Verbenaceae Bun-tilian  Leaves and Stems Purgative, Tonic and Stimulant
154 Lawsonia inermis Lythracea Elam/ Hina Leaves Arthritis, Choilynichitis and Abscess
155 Leonotis ocimifolia Lamiaceae Leonotis Leaves Intestinal worms, Bloating and Menstruation
156 Lepidium sativum Brassicaceae Shnfa'e Leaves TB, Hepatitis, Amoeba and Taenia capitis
157 Leucas abyssinica Lamiaceae Tseada kurneaa Leaves Endo parasites and Cold
158 Leucas martinensis Lamiaceae Teketater Leaves Cough, Gastritis and Arthritis.
159 Linum usitatissimun Linaceae Entatie Seeds Limb inflammation and Abdominal pain
160 Lycopersicum esculentum Solanaceae Komedere Fruits Inflammation of nails and Gastritis
161 Malus domestica Rosaceae Tufah Fruits Constipation and digestive problem
162 Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae Mangus  Leaves Bronchitis, Diabetes and Fever
163 Matricoria chamomile Asteraceae Chamamiella All parts Could, Skin inflammation and Hemorrhoids
164 Maytenus arbuitofolia Celesteraceae Ateate  Barks Eye problems and Head ache
165 Maytenus senegalensis Celesteraceae Argudi Barks Arthritis and Eye problems
166 Melia azadirachta Meliaceae Melia Fruits Fungal diseases and Hemorrhoids
167 Mentha piperita Lamiaceae Nae-nae All parts Hypertension and Dandruff
168 Meriandra dianthera Lamiaceae Nehba Leaves Hypertension, Diabetes and Emetics
169 Mimusops kummel Sapotaceae Kummel Fruits Asthma, Cough and Bladder infection
170 Mimusops schimperi Sapotaceae Lullae Leaves Gerefta and Evil eyes
171 Moringa oleifera Moringaceae Moringa Leaves Anemia, Diarrhea and Rheumatism
172 Musa sapientum Musaceae Banana Fruits Constipation and digestion disorder
173 Nepeta azurea Lamiaceae Aba-arha Leaves Head ache and Sun strike
174 Nicandra physaloides Solanaceae Mezerbae-telian Leaves and Latex Tooth-ache and Cough
175 Nicotiana glauca Solanaceae Ashea-gereb Leaves and Latex Antibiotic and Gerefta
176 Nicotiana tabacum Solanaceae Tembako Leaves Tooth-ache, Insects and Snake bite
177 Nigella sativa Ranunculaceae Abosuda Stems Digestion prob and Bronchial prob.
178 Nuxia congesta Loganiaceae Kentebera Stems Abscess and Myalgia
179 Ocimum basilicum Lamiaceae Seseg  Leaves Head ache, Hypertension and Vomiting
180 Ocimum forskolei Lamiaceae Chomer All parts Cough, Malaria and Hear disease
181 Olea europeana / cuspidata Oleaceae Awliee  Stems Ring warm, Dandruff
182 Opuntia ficus-indica Cactaceae Beles Fruits Diuretic, Abscess and wounds
183 Ormocarpum pubescens Fabaceae Alendia Barks Anti-inflammatory, Wound infection
184 Osyrisquadrpartita Santalaceae Qerets Leaves Gastritis and Constipation
185 Otostegiafruticosa Lamiaceae Feshadima Leaves Tonsillitis, Arthritis and Endo parasites
186 Otostegiaintegrifolia Lamiaceae Chendog Leaves Uvulitis, Abdominal-pain and Tonsillitis
187 Ozoroainsignis Anacardiaceae Zanzai Barks Insect and Fungal repellant
188 Pappea capensis Sapindaceae Tish-bealalito Leaves Gynecological problem and Arthritis
189 Parkinsonia aculeata Fabaceae Shewit hagai Barks Eczema and Abdominal-pain
190 Passiflora molissima  Passifloraceae Passion-fruit  Leaves Head ache, Asthma and Rheumatism
191 Pavetta gardenifolia Rubiaceae Mugtot  Leaves Cancer, Evil spirit and Diarrhea 
192 Petrolobium stellatusm Fabaceae Qentefetefe Leaves Eye infection and Ear infection
193 Phoenix dactylifera Arecaceae Temri Fruits Diarrhea, Constipation and Burn
194 Phytolacca dodec and ra Phytolaccaceae Shibtti  Leaves Urination, Gastritis and TB
195 Piliostigma thonningii Fabaceae Amam-gemel  Leaves Infectious dermatitis
196 Plantago zeylancia Plantaginaceae …………… Leaves Ring warm and Antibiotics
197 Plumbago zeylanica Plumbaginaceae Aftuh  Roots Rheumatism, Evil eye and Snake venom
198 Podocarpes latifolius Podocarpaceae Zgbba Leaves Asthma and Respiratory problems
199 Pittosporium viridifolium Pittosporaceae ……………. Leaves Choilynichitis and Tonsillitis
200 Pollichia campestris Carryophyllaceae Hareg baita Roots Snake bite, Tonsillitis and Eye disease
201 Prosopis juliflora Fabaceae Temer musa Pods Lactation and Digestion disturbance
202 Prunus persica Rosaceae K'uuk Leaves and Barks Tonsillitis and Constipation
203 Psiadia punctulata Asteraceae Allakhit All parts Abdominal helminthes and Amoeba
204 Psiduim guajava Myrtaceae Zeytun Fruits Dysentery and Digestion problem 
205 Psydrax schimperiana Rubiaceae Zahak All parts  Anti-Insect and Anti- fungal
206 Rhamnus prinoides Rhamnaceae Geso  Leaves Dandruff, Hepatitis, Tonsillitis and Uvulitis
207 Rhamnus staddo Rhamnaceae Tsedo Leaves Uvulitis and Dand ruff
208 Rhus glutinosa Anacardiaceae Amoss  Leaves Ectoparasites and Scabies
209 Rhus retinorrhoea Anacardiaceae Teateale Leaves Scabies and diarrhea
210 Rhus natalensis Anacardiaceae Teateale Leaves Vomiting and diarrhea
211 Rhus retinorrhoea Anacardiaceae Teateale Leaves Vomiting and diarrhea
212 Ricinus communis Euphorbiaceae Guulei Leaves Termite repellants and Fungal problems
213 Rosa abyssinica Rosaceae Qolo-dashem LeavesandBarks Tape warmand Round worm expectorants
214 Rosmarinus officinalis Lamiaceae Azmarino All parts Hypertension and Diabetes
215 Rumex nervosus Polygonaceae Hihhot Leaves Itching, Eczema and Infected wounds.
216 Rumex abyssinica Polygonaceae Moq-moqo All parts Anti-cancer, anti-biotic and Diuretic
217 Ruta chalepnesis Rutaceae Chena adam Leaves Coughing and Cold
218 Sageretia thea Rhamnaceae Hamat tsedo Leaves Tonsillitis and Antibiotics
219 Salvadora persica Salvadoraceae Adai Stems Colds, Stomach disorders and Purgative 
220 Salvia schimperii Lamiaceae Aba-Hadera Leaves Gastritis, Malaria and Hypertension
221 Schinus molle Anacardiaceae Berbere tselim  Leaves Diarrhea, Abdominal pain and Cold
222 Sclerocarya birrea Anacardiaceae Abengul  Barks Anti-Scurvy and Antibiotics
223 Senna alexandrina Fabaceae Senno Leaves Hepatitis, Hepatomegaly and Splenomegaly 
224 Senna singueana Fabaceae Hambo-hambo Barks Vomitingandloss of appetite
225 Sida schimperiana Malvaceae Tefraria Roots Eczema and Urination, Tooth cleanness
226 Solanum incanium Solanaceae Uengule Leaves Loss of hair and Nose bleeding
227 Solanum nigrum Solanaceae Mear-mexu Latex Snake, Scorpion venom and Cancer
228 Solanum shcimperianum Solanaceae Qeranot  Leaves Scabies and Evil eyes
229 Solanum tuberosum Solanaceae Dnesh Tuber Eye-cleaning, Hepatitis and Burns
230 Sorghum bicolor Poaceae Mashela  Seeds Diarrhea, Sprain and Nerve Problems
231 Steganotaenia araliaceae Apiaceae Ander guhila Leavesand Stems Snake and Scorpion venom and Gastritis
232 Stereospermum kunthianum Bignoniaceae Argizana  Leaves Stabbing Pain, Abdominal pain
233 Syzygium guineens Myrtaceae Lehham  Leaves Cough and Bronchitis
234 Tagetes minuta Asteraceae Tagetes minuta Rootsand Leaves Diarrhea and Insecticide
235 Tamarindus indica Fabaceae Homer  Fruits Cold, Malaria, Purgative and Emetic
236 Tamarix aphylla Tamaricaceae Ubel Leaves Colds and Stomach disorders
237 Teclea nobilis Rutaceae Suluh Barks Purgatives and Cough
238 Tragiapungent Euphorbiaceae Amea Barks Fingers inflammation and Insect bites
239 Trichilia emetica Meliaceae Gumeh   Insecticides and Used in soap Manufacturing
240 Terminalia brownii Combreataceae Weiba Barks Hepatitis, Purgative and Dandruff
241 Trigonella foenum-graecum Fabaceae Abaake Seeds Hypertension, Diabetes and Asthma
242 Vangueria madagascariensis Rubiaceae Harnkeren Roots Intestinal warm and Purgative
243 Verbascum sinaiticum Scrophulariaceae Zengi-adgii Leaves Gerefta, Sun strike and Hypertension
244 Vernonia amygdalina Asteraceae Grawa Leaves Head ache, Heart frailer and Allergies
245 Vernonia schimperi Asteraceae Sgemo Leaves Ear ache, Eczema, Pruritic and Sprain
246 Vicia faba Fabaceae Baldengua Seeds Skin burns and digestion disorder
247 Vitis viniferia Vitaceae Weini Fruits Cold and Loss of appetite
248 Withania somnifera Solanaceae Solanaceae Leaves Antibiotics, Gonfii, Sprain and Arthritis
249 Xanthium strumarium Asteraceae Bano Leaves Abdominal helminthes
250 Ximenia americana Olacaceae Me’lleo Leaves Tonsillitis and Anti biotic
251 Zea mays Poaceae Uefun  Seeds Kidney problem, and Diuretic 
252 Zehneria scabra Cucurbitaceae Hareg-ressa Seeds Tapeworm expectorant and Gerefta
253 Zingiber officinale Zingeberaceae Jenjebel SeedsandFruits Rheumatism, Asthma and Menstruation
254 Ziziphus abyssinica Rhamnaceae Gaba adgii  Leaves Dandruff and Cough
255 Ziziphus mucronata Rhamnaceae Gaba harmaz  Leaves Dandruff and Sauna
256 Ziziphus spina-christi Rhamnaceae Gaba Leaves Coughand Fungal Migraine

Conclusion and Recommendation

This study provides and clues for the scientific basis to the traditional uses of different medicinal plants for healing different diseases. It may be a source supply of modern medicines. Many chemicals were found in different plant parts hence through investigation is required. It also helps to encourage the cultivation of such plants of high medicinal value to enhance the income for ethnobotanical cultivation.

Based on such vital importance it was recommended for:

• Traditional herbalists should be well acquainted with and abide by the ethics and fundamental principles of medicines, so that the medicine has a positive impact on health of the society and it should be given in precise dosage.

• Medicinal properties of the plant species used should be properly known to the people and given wide publicity.

• Skill of traditional medicine practitioners have to be encouraged and protected from the wrong perception that leads an accusation.

• Create awareness to encourage the population in order to conserve the threatened and endangered plant species in their natural habitats and home-gardens.

• Medicinal plant management and conservation must be integrated in other sectors such as in health to foster better use of plant materials and in education to build up awareness of the need for protection. Government must provide incentives to farmers cultivating of medicinal plants to ensure their conservation issues.

Acknowledgements

The authors expresses thanks to the Department of Biology, Eritrea Institute of Technology, Mai Nefhi, Asmara, Eritrea and also providing laboratory facilities like EIT Herbarium Research Lab. The support and the kind cooperation given by the Zoba people of the region of the State of Eritrea were gratefully acknowledged.

References

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