Department of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India
Objective: The main objective of the Present study deals with Ethno medicinal information collected on 173 plants species utilized by the tribal communities of papikondalu wild life sanctuary area.
Methods: The Papikondalu wild life sanctuary is thoroughly studied by repeated visits in different seasons of the year 2014 to 2015 covering the pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons to cover the overall sperectrum of vegetation. It helps in observing the developmental stages of medicinal plants species like vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages. The plants specimens were collected identified with the help of Flora of Presidency of Madras, Flora of Andhra Pradesh, Forest flora of Andhra Pradesh. The names of tribal doctors, other ethno medicinal knowledge peoples (Tribal men and Women) who have given the ethno medicinal information were recorded.
Results: The Present study deals with Ethno medicinal information on 173 plants species , belonging to 148 genera’s under 65 families utilized by the tribal communities of papikondalu wild life sanctuary area. Out of which 87 medicinal properties were recorded for human ailments. Out of 65 families 63 families belongs to Dicocts and 2 families are monocots
Conclusion: This forest region is good resource and wealth for various flora and fauna, but due to anthropogenic activities, density as well as canopy of the forest was reduced knowingly or unknowingly. It is a high time to have a look on its conservation and management strategies to protect our heritage and forest wealth.
Diversity, ethno medicinal plants, Papikondalu wild life sanctuary, Therapeutic agents.
India is well known as an “Emporium of medicinal plants”. About 70% of the rural folk depend on medicinal plants for their health care. India is the largest producer of medicinal plant products and is rightly called the “Botanical garden of the World”. Since ancient times, Ethnobotanical use of plants has been known and use of traditional medicine and medicinal plants in most developing countries as therapeutic agents for the maintenance of good health has been widely observed and accepted. The indigenous people of various regions have developed their own way of using plants for their health care and following their own culture, customs, folk songs and food habits. This knowledge is transferred through orally from one generation to another. Over exploitation of trade species, destructive way of collection, vulnerability due to anthropogenic pressures are some of the major threats to medicinal plants. Documentation of indigenous knowledge through ethno botanical studies is important for the conservation and utilization of biological resources [1-4]. The indigenous groups depend either directly or indirectly on the products of the forest for their livelihood and have down the ages, preserved the knowledge about the traditional and cultural uses of plants.  The Ethno medicinal studies in Andhra Pradesh have been conducted by Several Authors like [6-9]. The utilization of medicinal plants as a source of medicine amongst the tribal region of Papikondalu wild life sanctuary area has considerably neglected in state of Andhra Pradesh [10-12]. In India, 45,000 plant species have been identified, out of which about 15-20, 000 plants are of good medicinal value [13,14]. About 2, 500 plant species belonging to more than 1,000 genera are used by traditional healers. The World Health Organization estimates that 80% of the people in developing countries of the world rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs, and about 85% of traditional medicine involves the use of plant extract. Traditional medicine is widely used in India, particularly in rural areas, where 70% of the population lives. In India Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha are well popularized traditional medicinal systems for the treatment of various ailments. Therefore the present study focused to assessment the medicinal plants diversity in papikondalu wild life sanctuary of Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh to identify the species richness and Ethno medicinal uses and suggest conservation measures.
Papikondalu wild life sanctuary is spreads over 591Sq kms and across the two districts of East Godavari and West Godavari. This wild life sanctuary is a home to many species of flora and fauna and cuts through the papikonda range of hills in Eastern Ghats. The mountain range is covered with tropical and deciduous rain forests that provide views of the surroundings. Papikondalu wild life sanctuary has museum and an environmental education. The natural vegetation here makes it suitable for animals like tigers, panthers, four-hormed Antelopes, Hyenas, Sloth bear and many migrated birds flock here and make it their shelter for some times generally from May to October. The main vegetation of the region is generally tropical and dry deciduous type. The climate of the Region is typically temperate and consists of 3mainly distinct seasons i.e. summer season, Rainy season and winter season.
The entire area of the Papikondalu wild life sanctuary is thoroughly studied by repeated visits in different seasons of the year 2014 to 2015 covering the pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons to cover the overall sperectrum of vegetation. It helps in observing the developmental stages of medicinal plants species like vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages. The plants specimens were collected identified with the help of Flora of Presidency of Madras,15 Flora of Andhra Pradesh [16,17,18,19], Forest flora of Andhra Pradesh [20, 21, 22]. The names of tribal doctors, other ethno medicinal knowledge peoples (Tribal men and Women) who have given the ethno medicinal information were recorded. Plants specimens were collected either with flower or fruit, they were dried and poisoned with saturated solution of mercuric chloride in rectified spirit and herbarium specimens were prepared with their botanical name, vernacular name locality, collector names, voucher specimen number and deposited in the Herbarium of Botany department, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam. The informants were asked question in Telugu language understandable in most of the cases, otherwise in their local languages (Koya language) seeking help of paid local assistance regarding traditional uses of ethno medicinal plants and their local names and distribution. Finally the ethno medicinal information are given in according to Bentham and Hooker classification with other details such as Botanical name, local name, family, life form, used part and medicinal uses in Table-1.
Table 1: Utilization of Medicinal plants in Different types of ailments
|S.No||Ailments / Medicinal Properties||No of Species||S.No||Ailments / Medicinal Properties||No of Species|
|1||Abdominal Swelling||1||45||Fluent talk||1|
|4||Amoebic Dysentery||1||48||Gastric trouble||1|
|8||Antidote to Animal Bite||1||52||Head ache||2|
|12||Black Quarter Disease
|15||Blood Purifier||1||59||Intestinal Worms||1|
|19||Boils and Blisters||1||63||Malaria||2|
|20||Bone Fractures||3||64||Muscle Pain||1|
|26||Conception||1||70||Post natal Care||1|
|28||Cooling affect||1||72||Rheumatoid Arthritis||9|
|29||Cough and Cold||1||73||Rheumatism||1|
|37||Ear diseases||1||81||Stomach Ulcers||1|
|40||Eruptions on the Skin||1||84||Toothache||2|
The Present study deals with Ethno medicinal information on 173 plants species , belonging to 148 genera’s under 65 families utilized by the tribal communities of papikondalu wild life sanctuary area. Out of which 87 medicinal properties were recorded for human ailments. Out of 65 families 63 families belongs to Dicocts and 2 families are monocots i.e Arecaceae representing 3 species and Poaceae representing 4 species. Ethno medicinally the most dominant family are Fabaceae with 11 species followed by Euphorbiaceae (8), Caesalpiniaceae, Combretaceae, Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae is each (7) Mimosaceae, Rubiaceae and Verbinaceae (6), Malvaceae and Poaceae (5), Rutaceae, Ancardiaceae Asteraceae and Sterculiaceae (4) Capparidaceae Minispermaceae and Meliaceae 3 Species each (Table-1) According to the habitation of plants Trees are the most utilized plants (69) followed by Herbs (45), Climbers(32) Shrubs (25) Epiphytes and Parasites are each one. (Fig- 2) Different parts of the medicinal plants are using by the traditional practitioners among them Stem bark(30%) are used for the preparation of medicines predominantly followed by Leaf and Root each(24.7%), whole plant (6.93%), Seeds (6.35%), Fruits(4.04%) and Tubers( 3.40%) Fig-3. Ethno medicinal plants are used in treatment of different diseases in human body such as Malaria, Paralysis, Fever, eye problems, Throat infection, Kidneys problems and teeth problems etc. Most of the species are used for Diarrhoea (10) species followed by rheumatic arthritis and Asthma each (6), Dysentery and Fever (6) Paralysis, Jaundice and Leucorrhoea (5) Epilepsy(4) Stomachache and Peptic ulcers (3), the following details is given by (Table-2 & Fig- 1). The area of study is rich in floral diversity with strong traditions of Ethno medicinal practices l practices existing among the ethnic communities. Therefore, there is a strong need to take necessary steps for the conservation and sustainable use of these medicinal plants, which are the source of food, herbal medicine and a variety of materials for daily use of the ethnic communities.
Table 2: Diversity and indeginous uses of Ethnomedicinal Plants
|S.No||Family||Plant Name||Lafe form||Local name||Used part||Medicinal uses|
|1||Rananculaceae||Naravalia zeylanica||Climber||Pullabatchala||Stem||Toothache: Stem is used to cure toothache.|
|2||Dilleniaceae||Dillenia pentagyna||Tree||Revadi chettu||Stem||Rheumatoid Arthritis: 3 inches of stem bark is crushed with sufficient quantity of salt and the extract is administered orally daily once
|3||Annonaceae||Annona squamosa||Tree||Seethaphalam||Leaves and Bark||Asthma: 10 leaves and 30 g of bark are boiled in 1 glass of water till it reduces to half glass and given orally once a day till cure.|
|4||Menispermaceae||Cissampelos pareira||Climber||Adavibankateega||Leaves||Intestinal Worms: Leaves crushed with that of Androgaphis paniculata and
Pongamia pinnata and the extract given orally 3 sponfuls thrice a day for
|Cocculus hirsutus||Climber||Dusara teega||Roots||Rheumatoid Arthritis: 12 g o f roots crushed with 2 long pepper seeds are
mixed in a cup of goat milk and the extract is taken daily once for a fortnight.
|Tinospora cordifolia||Climber||Tippateega||Tubers||Stomach Ulcers: 3 spoonfuls of tuber extract is given orally twice a day till cure.|
|5||Pepavaraceae||Argemone mexicana||Herb||Balarakasi||Roots,Seeds and Leaves||Malaria: Roots are ground with seeds and leaves and the extract two spoonfuls is given once a day for 4 days.|
|6||Capparaceae||Capparis zeylanica||Climber||Adonda||Roots||Paralysis: Root bark ground with aerial root of Ficus benghalensis and tail of garden lizard and the paste is made into pills. 2 pills are given per day for 40 days.|
|Cleome gynandra||Herb||Vaminta||whole plant||Peptic Ulcer: 50 ml of the plant juice is given orally once a day for every
3days for about 6 times.
|Cleome viscosa||Herb||Kukkavaminta||whole plant||Peptic Ulcer: 50 ml of the plant juice is given orally once a day for every
3days for about 6 times.
|7||Violaceae||Hybanthus enneaspermus||Herb||Ratnapurusha||whole plant||Impotency: 3 spoonfuls of whole plant extract is mixed with goats milk and administered once a day for 30 days.|
|Tree||Kondagogu||Stem Bark||Bone Fractures: Stem bark is ground into paste and it is plastered over the
|9||Malvaceae||Abutilon indicum||Shrub||Tuttru Benda||Leaf||Scorpion sting: Leaf paste is applied over the spot of scorpior sting|
|Pavonia zeylanica||Shrub||Karubenda||Leaf||Purgative: 2-3 leaves are chewed after meals|
|Sida acuta||Herb||Nelabenda||Leaf||Scorpion Sting: Leaf paste applied over the bitten part.|
|Sida cordata||Herb||Gayapuaku||Leaf||Paralysis: 2 spoonfuls of leaf juice is mixed with goat milk and administered|
|twice a day till cure.|
|Sida cordifolia||Herb||Chirubenda||Seeds||Sexual Potency: Seeds made into peanut seed size pills. 2 pills are administered once a day for 15 days.|
|10||Bombacaceae||Bombax ceiba||Tree||Buruga||Roots||Fertility:Root powder taken orally with glass of cow milk increases the fertility|
|Ceiba pentandra||Tree||Tella Buruga||Stem bark||White Discharge:50 ml Juice is extracted from stem bark and a pinch of zeera powder and Sugar is mixed to taste and given orally before breakfast
in alternate days
|11||Sterculiaceae||Helicteres isora||Tree||Melikaya||Roots||Scorpion Sting: Root decoction is given orally immediately after the snake
|Tree||Lolugu||Stembark||Whooping Coug 2ml of stem bark decoction is given orally once a day for
3days for infants
|Sterculia urens||Tree||Kovelachettu,Tapsi||Stem bark||Rheumatoid Arthritis: Stem bark ground with turmeric and the filtrate is mildly heated and administered in 2 spoonfuls twice a day for 5 days.|
|Waltheria indica||Herb||NallaBenda||Leaf||Cough and Cold:Dry leaf powder is boiled in water and used agenist cough|
|12||Tiliaceae||Grewia tiliaefolia||Tree||Tada||Leaf paste||Fracture: Root bark paste is applied as plaster on dislocated joints of cattle.|
|13||Zygophyllaceae||Tribulus terrestris||Herb||Palleru||Whole plant||Jaundice: Equal quantities of whole plant Amaranthus tricolor with Tribulus terrestris are made into paste. Two spoonfuls of this paste mixed with cow
milk is given on empty stomach for about 7 days.
|14||Rutaceae||Aegle marmelos||Tree||Maredu||Leaf paste,Fruit
|Diabetes: About 10ml of leaf juice is given with 5 Piper nigrum seeds twice a day for two months|
|Chloroxylon swetenia||Tree||Billudu chettu||Stem Bark||Impotency: Root bark extract mixed with goat’s milk and administered two spoonfuls twice a day for 15 days.|
|Murraya paniculata||Shrub||Kondakarivepaku||Root||Anaemia: The roots mixed with the roots of Toddalia asiatica and grounded to paste and a spoonful of paste is given along with ghee daily for a week.|
|Naringi crenulata||Tree||Torrivelaga||Stem Bark||Dysentery: Stem bark crushed with the bark of Strychnos potatorum and
the extract is mixed with a pinch of salt and is administered in the doses of 2 spoonfuls twice a day for 5 days.
|15||Simaroubaceae||Ailanthes excelsa||Tree||Peddamanu||Stem Bark||Asthma: 30-50ml of bark infusion is administered orally twice daily till cure.|
|16||Burseraceae||Garuga pinnata||Tree||Garuga||Stem Bark||Stomachache: Stem bark along with the roots of Tridax procumbens and the bark of Butea monosperma and Pterocarpus marsupium taken equal proportions and extract is prepared 10 ml of this extract is given twice a day for 1 day.|
|17||Meliaceae||Azadirachta indica||Tree||Vepa||Stem Bark||Amoebic Dysentery: Stem bark gum mixed with seeds of Ocimum basilicum
is dried and powdered. It is made in decoction. A spoonful decoction is administered daily twice for 3days..
|Cipadessa baccifera||Shrub||Paladonda||Leaf||Chickenpox: Leaf juice along with turmeric powder applied externally for the treatment of chickenpox.|
|Soymida febrifuga||Tree||Soymida||Root||Dysmenorrhoea: Roots along with Piper nigrum and cow milk are pound to
paste and is administered in doses of 2 spoonfuls per a day for 3days.
|Climber||Jyothismathi||Root Bark||Leucorrhoea: Root bark ground with black pepper grains, 3 ml of extract
taken orally once a day for about 2 weeks.
|19||Rhamnaceae||Ziziphus mauritiana||Shrub||Reni||Leaves||Body pains:A decoction is made with leaves and bark and is used to take both to treat severe body pains|
|Ziziphus oenoplia||Climber||Parimakampa||Stem Bark||Diarrhoea: Pound the stem bark and make pills with the size of 1gm each. 1 pill is given orally thrice in aday for three days.|
|Climber||Adavi Draksha||Stem Bark||Fever: 5 gms stem bark powder is mixed with water and given orally thrice
in a day for 2-3 days
|Cissus quadrangularis||Climber||Nalleru||Stem,Leave s||Fever: Tenders stems and leaves crushed and the extract mixed with breast milk is administered in doses of half spoonful once a day for 3days to infants.|
|Climber||Buddakakara||Leaves||Burns: Leaf paste along with oil of Ricinus communis is applied over the
|Tree||Kunkudu||Leaves||Cooling affect: Leaves are made into paste and the paste is applied over
|Schleichera oleosa||Tree||Pusika chettu||Stem Bark||Rheumatoid Arthritis: Stem bark along with those of Mangifera indica and Tamarindus indica and seeds of black horse gram (20 g each) are crushed, boiled in 500 ml of water till it is reduced to 100 ml. 1 cup of this decoction is taken daily once for 4 days. Bark is powdered, mixed with water and boiled in earthen pot. The decoction thus obtained is massaged lukewarm on the affected part thrice daily for 4 days. Seed oil is massaged over the
affected area till cure.
|Stem bark||Diarrhoea: Stem bark powdered with stem bark of Syzygium cumini one
spoonful of this powder is administered twice a day for 3days.
|Lannea coromandelica||Tree||Gumpini||Stem Bark||Gastric trouble: 1 spoonful of stem bark decoction administered twice a day till cure.|
|Mangifera indica||Tree||Mamidi||Stem Bark||Fluent talk: Stem bark pound with the root bark of Cleistanthus collinus
and tuber of Momordica dioica The paste is used for fluent talk in children.
|Semecarpus anacardium||Tree||Nallajeedi||Seeds||Abdominal Swelling: Seeds ground with onion and the paste is applied over the affected area.|
|23||Fabaceae||Abrus precatorius||Climber||Guruvinda||Seeds||Abortion: 2 or 3 seeds are ground and the paste is mixed in a glass of
water. This is administered once a day before breakfast for 3days.
|Butea monosperma||Tree||Chettumoduga||Bark||Post natal Care: Gum is extracted from the bark is fried with ghee and is
administered twice a day for 15 days.
|Butea superba||Climber||Teegamoduga||Stem bark||Haematuria: Stem bark is made into paste. 2 spoonfuls paste is
administered on empty stomach once a day for 3days.
|Dalbergia latifolia||Tree||Pachari||Stem Bark||Fever: 2 spoonfuls of stem bark extract is administered twice a day for
|Herb||Kolapanna||Leaves||Boils and Blisters: leaves ground with a pinch of salt and the paste is
applied on the affected areas till cure.
|Desmodium pulchellum||Shrub||Karra Anthina||Root||Epilepsy: roots are ground with garlic cloves and the paste is made into pills of Bengal gram seed size and the pills are administered in doses of three
pills twice a day for about 30 days.
|Mucuna pruriens||Climber||Dulagondi||Root||Dysmenorrhoea: Roots are ground to paste along with roots of Azadirachta indica, stem barks of Chloroxylum swietenia and Holoptelia integrifolia. The paste along with cow milk is administered in the doses of 1 spoonful per
day for 5 days.
|Pongamia pinnata||Tree||Kanuga||Stem bark||Peripheral Neuritis: Stem bark ground with the stem barks of Barringtonia acutangula, Calotropis gigantia, Casearia elliptica and rots of Aristida funiculat are made into pills. 2 pills per day are given for 1 week.|
|Pterocarpus marsupium||Tree||Yegisha||Stem Bark||Conception: 10g of stem bark ground with that of Mitragyna parvvifolia
and the paste made into pea nut seed size pills. 21 pills are administered
orally once a day for 7 days.
|Pueraria tuberosa||Climber||Nelagummadi||Tubers||Peptic Ulcers: Tuber extract mixed with little sugar and administered in doses of 2 spoonfuls twice a day till cure.|
|Tephrosia purpurea||Herb||Vempalli||Root bark||Paralysis: 1 Spoonful of dried root powder mixed with that of Cassia occidentalis ground with jaggery is administered once a day for 45 days.|
|24||Caesalpiniaceae||Bauhinia racemosa||Tree||Arechettu||Root bark||Diarrhoea: Five spoonfuls of the root bark extract is administered twice a
day for 5 days.
|Bauhinia vahlii||Climber||Addakulu||Root bark||Dysentery: 5 spoonfuls of root extract along with half cup of curd is administered twice a day for 3days.|
|Caesalpinia bonduc||Shrub||Gachakayalu||Leaves||Black Quarter Disease in Cattle: The leaves boiled alongwith the leaves of
Vitex negundo, Cassia occidentalis, Tinospora cordifolia and Pupalia
lappacea and the extract given orally to cattle.
|Cassia auriculata||Shrub||Tangedu||Leaves||Burns: leaves burnt with the feathers of Peacock, and the ash mixed with coconut oil applied on burns.|
|Cassia fistula||Tree||Rellachettu||Stem bark||Chest pain: The stem bark extract mixed with the seed oil of Schleichera oleosa 2 spoonfuls of this extract administered once a day for 3days.|
|Cassia occidentalis||Herb||Kasitha||Root||Anthelmentic: 2 Spoonfuls of root extract mixed with a pinch of salt and administered thrice a day for 4 days.|
|Tamarindus indica||Tree||Chintachettu||Fruits||Backache, Menorrhagia & Weakness: 10 ml of fruit extract mixed with old jaggery in 1:2 ratio is administered twice a day for 7 days.|
|25||Mimosaceae||Acacia chundra||Tree||Sandra||Stem||Whooping Cough: 10g of stem sap with 2 spoonfuls of mother’s milk is administered to children twice a day till cure.|
|Acacia leucophloea||Tree||Tella tumma||Stem Bark||Burns: Take 20 gms stem bark powder and apply on burns along with oil.|
|Dichrostachys cinerea||Tree||Veluturuchettu||Stem Bark||Paralysis: 10 gms stem bark extract of Dichrostachys cinerea and Abutilon indicum in water is given orally once in a day for week.|
|Entada pursaetha||Climber||Peddagacha||Seeds||Rheumatism: Seed coat made into paste and applied externally on the
affected parts till cure.
|Mimosa pudica||Herb||Attipatti||Root||Epilepsy: The roots ground with the roots of Mundulea sericea and Mucuna puriens and the powder is mixed with water and is given orally in the doses of 2 spoonfuls for every 15 minutes about 2 times.|
|Xylia xylocarpa||Tree||Kondaptangedu||Root bark||Gonorrhoea: 2 spoonfuls of root bark extract is administered orally twice a
day for 15 days.
|26||Combretaceae||Anogeissus acuminata||Tree||Pachichettu||Stem bark||Dysentery: Stem bark ground with Pithecellobium dulce and paste is made into pills. 3 pills twice are given twice a day for 3 days.|
|Anogeissus latifolia||Tree||Sirimanu||Seeds||Snake Bite: Seed paste along with water is administered orally and also
|Climber||Bontha teega||Leaves||Fever: Leaves are ground to make a fine paste and administered with
butter to cure malarial fever.
|Terminalia alata||Tree||Nallamaddi||Roots||Fever: Roots are collected in the early morning and tied to the cure
|Terminalia arjuna||Tree||Tellamaddi,Yeruma ddi||Stem bark||Heart problems: A tonic is prepared from the bark of the tree for heart problem.|
|Terminalia bellerica||Tree||Tani||Fruits||Asthma: Fruits are ground to power with the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Balanites aegyptiaca; roots of Aristolochia indica, Rauvolfia serpentina and Syzygium aromaticum. 1 spoonful of powder along with honey is given
thrice a day for 30 days.
|Terminalia chebula||Tree||Karakaya||Stem bark||Fish Poison: Crushed stem bark and fruits is administered orally in doses of 2 spoonfuls|
|Tree||Kanapa||Leaves||Head ache: Leaves made into paste and applied on forehead.|
|Tree||Alli chettu.||Root bark||Leucorrhoea: 2 spoonfuls of extract of root bark decoction is administered
twice a day till cure.
|29||Lythraceae||Lagerstroemia parviflora||Tree||Chennagi||Leaves||Dysentery: Tender leaves are ground into paste with pepper grains. This paste in doses of two spoonfuls is administered once a day for 5 days.|
|Woodfordia fruticosa||Shrub||Arepuvvu,Pittachet tu||Flowers||Diarrhoea: Dried flower powder is mixed with warm water and is given in doses of two spoonfuls per a day for 3days.|
|30||Cucurbitaceae||Coccinia grandis||Climber||Kakidonda||Leaf||wounds: Leaf juice is applied on the wounds|
|Climber||Lingadonda||Leaves||Fertility: 10ml of leaf decoction administered once a day to induce menses
in girls for fertility.
|31||Apiaceae||Centella asiatica||Herb||Saraswthiaku||Leaves||Anaemia: Shade dried leaves powder with powder of pepper seeds is given in the dosages of 3 spoonfuls of powder with glass of milk early in the
morning for 30 days.
|32||Alangiaceae||Alangium salvifoium||Tree||Udugachettu||Stem bark||Paralysis: Stem bark ground to past with Piper nigrum and the past is administered two spoonfuls per day for 7 days.|
|Shrub||Balusu||Leaves||Constipation: Boiled leaves are made into paste and given orally thrice a
day for 2 days ays.
|Tree||Nallaika||Roots||Head ache: Roots are rubbed on stone with coconut oil and extract
applied on the head
|Haldinia cordifolia||Tree||Kambamanu||Stem bark||Leucorrhoea: stem bark mixed with that of Sterculia urens, ground, boiled with Piper nigrum, decoction given orally for 9 days. Salt and oil food
prohibited during treatment.
|Ixora pavetta||Shrub||Korivichettu||Stem bark||Jaundice: 2 spoonfuls of stem bark extract is administered twice a day for 9
|Pavetta indica||Shrub||Papidi||Leaves||Blisters: warm leaf paste applied over the affected parts.|
|Tarenna asiatica||Shrub||Pedda papidi||Stem bark||Dysentery: Stem bark crushed with that of Jatropha curcas, 2 spoonfuls of the extract is administered thrice a day for 3days.|
|34||Asteraceae||Emilia sonchifolia||Herb||Pisapatri||Stem bark||Night Blindness: 10 ml stem bark juice is giveninternally to cure blind ness.|
|Tridax procumbens||Herb||Gaddichamanthi||Plant||Jaundice: Plant paste with jaggery is administered in doses of two
spoonfuls per day for 7 days.
|Vernonia cinerea||Herb||Garitikamma||Seeds||Leucoderma: A spoonful of seed powder mixed with 2 black pepper fruits is administered once a day for 30 days.|
|Xanthium strumarium||Herb||Marulamathangi||Roots||Boils: 3ml of root extract is administered once a day for 2 days ays.|
|35||Sapotaceae||Madhuca longifolia||Tree||Vippachettu||Roots||Stomach pain: Roots crushed to paste along with the roots of Aristolochia indica, Holarrhena pubescens and Rauvolfia serpentina is made into pills. 2
pills per day is administered till cure.
|Manilkara hexandra||Tree||Palachettu||Stem bark||Body pains: Stem bark with black pepper grain is crushed 2 spoonfuls of the extract is mixed with jaggery and milk and administered twice a day till
|Tree||Ullinda||Leaves||Diarrhoea: Two spoonfuls of leaf juice is given twice a day for 3days.|
|Tree||Tunika||Leaves||Diarrhoea: Two spoonfuls of tender leaf juice is administered thrice a day
for 5 days.
|37||Oleaceae||Nyctanthes arbortristis||Tree||Parijatham||Leaves||Malaria: Decoction of the leaves with black pepper fruits, ginger and pinch of salt is made into a paste and is administered thrice a day for 3days.|
|38||Apocynaceae||Alstonia venenata||Tree||Eduakulapala||Stem bark||Anthelmintic: Stem bark along with Piper longum is made into an extract and is administered in doses of 5 spoonfuls twice a day for 3days.|
|Shrub||Peddapala||Stem bark||Asthma: One teaspoonful of bark powder is given orally till cure.|
|Ichnocarpus frutescens||Climber||Nallateega||Root||Haemorrhage: Root crushed with Cuminum cyminum and Trachyspermum roxburghianum seeds and the paste with lemon juice is administered once
a day for 9 days.
|Rauvolfia serpentina||Herb||Sarpagandhi||Root||Heart Pain: Roots crushed to paste with the roots of Alstonia scholaris, 2 spoonfuls of the paste is administered once a day for 5 days.|
|Shrub||Patalagaruda||Root bark||Blood Pressure: 6ml decoction of root bark is administered once a day for 7
|Wrightia arborea||Tree||Kodisapala||Bark||Snakebite: Latex, and the bark fiber tide above the bitten spot.|
|Wrightia tinctorea||Tree||Kodisapala||Bark||Obesity: Bark along with Cuminum cyminum and garlic is used to reduce
|39||Asclepiadaceae||Calotropis gigantea||Shrub||Jilledu||Root||Leucorrhoea: Root decoction with paste of long peppers (3:1) is taken orally.|
|Gymnema sylvestre||Climber||Podapatri||Root||Cobrabite: Root pounded with roots of Aristolochia India and Rhinacanthus nasuta. The paste along with infant’s urine administered immediately for
|Pergularia daemia||Climber||Dustaputeega||Leaves||Bone Fracture: Leaves ground with that of Plumbago zeylanica and the aerial roots of Vanda tessellate, and the paste plastered over fractured bones.|
|Tylophora indica||Climber||Kukkavaminta||Leaves||Asthma: One tender leaf with 3 black pepper fruits is chewed on empty stomach once a day for 30 days.|
|Wattakaka volubilis||Climber||Bundiguruja||Leaves||Inflammation: Gently warmed leaves measered with sesamum oil are tied
to the part of inflammation.
|Climber||Adavipalateega||Leaves||Galactagogue: 200g of leaf paste is administered once a day for 7-10 days
to increase lactation
|Hemidesmus indicus||Climber||Sugandapala||Root||Herpes: Root ground to paste with the roots of Aristolochia indica and tubers of Cyperus rotundus and paste is applied on infected parts.|
|40||Loganiaceae||Strychnos nux- vomica||Tree||Musti||Stem bark||Asthma: Stem bark is crushed with black pepper and this decoction is administered in doses of 2-3 spoonfuls twice a day for 45 days.|
|Strychnos potatorum||Tree||Chillaginjalu||Seeds||Blood Pressure: Seed paste mixed with root paste of Abelmoschus ficulneus and Cuminum cyminum seeds is administered orally for 5 days.|
|Eczema: Plant paste along with that of Eclipta prostrata is applied on the
effected parts till cure.
|Cordia dichotama||Tree||Iriki||Stembark||Diarrhoea: 10 ml stem bark decoction is given twice in a day 4-6 days|
|42||Convolvulaceae||Argyreia nervosa||Climber||Samudrapala||Roots||Rheumatoid Arthritis: A paste of roots made with rice water is applied over the swollen part till cure.|
|Evolvulus alsinoides||Herb||Vishnukranthi||Leaves||Jaundice: 2 spoonfuls of leaf paste is mixed with onion bulb paste is administered twice a day for 7 days.|
|Evolvulus nummularius||Herb||Whole plant||Fever: Plant crushed with few seeds of Trachyspermum ammi. 1 spoonful of extract is administered twice a day for 3days.|
|43||Cuscutaceae||Cuscuta reflexa||Herb||Pasiteega||Whole plant||Epilepsy: One spoonful of decoction of the young plant with honey is administered once a day for 7 days.|
|44||Solanaceae||Datura metel||Herb||Ummetta||Root||Rheumatoid Arthritis: Root crushed with that of Dioscorea bulbifera 2 inches each and the extract is administered twice a day for 5 days.|
|Physalis minima||Herb||Budda dusara||Leaf||Ear diseases: 2-3 drops of leaf juice is dropped in the ear.|
|Solanum nigrum||Herb||Kamanchi||Whole plant||Swellings: About 250 g of the whole plant (except root) is eaten as a vegetable once a day for 5 days.|
|Solanum surettens||Herb||Mullavanga||Seed||Toothache: Seeds are powdered and mixed with turmeric powder and is applied over gums and in between the teeth.|
|45||Scrophulariaceae||Scoparia dulcis||Herb||Goatweed||Leaf,Root||Dysentery: Leaf/root extract mildly heated and administered in doses of 3
spoonfuls twice a day for 3days.
|Antifertility: Root bark or seeds ground with roots of Spermacoce
articularis and the intestine of mangoose and the paste made into pills. 1 pill is administered after menstruation.
|47||Pedaliaceae||Pedalium murex||Herb||Enugupalleru||Leaves||Dysmenorrhoea: Leaves mixed with garlic cloves and black pepper fruits are made into paste. The paste is administered in doses of 2 spoonfuls
once a day during menstrual period for 4 days.
|48||Martyniaceae||Martynia annua||Shrub||Gaddagoru||Root||Bronchitis: 3 spoonfuls of root decoction administered orally twice a day
for 4 days.
|49||Acanthaceae||Adhathoda zeylanica||Shrub||Addasaram||Leaves||Asthma: Leaves are groung to make paste and it is mixed with waterand orally once a day for 4-5 days .|
|Andrographis paniculata||Herb||Nelavemu||Stem||Asthma: Stem is mixed with that of Gymnema sylvestre and Justicia adhatoda leaves, ground and the infusion is given orally till cure.|
|50||Verbenaceae||Clerodendrum serratum||Shrub||Chiruteku||Root||Analgesic: 100 g root in one liter of water is boiled down to half one. This decoction in one glassful administered twice a day for 7 days.|
|Gmelina arborea||Tree||Gummaditeku||Stem bark||Chest pain: stem bark ground with that of Streblus asper, Careya arborea
and Piper nigrum and the paste made into pills, one pill a day is
administered for 30 days.
|Gmelina asiatica||Shrub||Sallagummadu||Fruit||Dandruff: The ripe fruit paste applied to scalp 1 hour before bath for 4 weeks.|
|Lantana camara||Shrub||Akshintalu pulu||Tender shoots||Rheumatoid Arthritis: 3 teaspoons of tender shoot decoction is administered daily once for a 30 days|
|Stomachache: 50 ml whole plant juice is administred orally|
|Vitex negundo||Shrub||Vavila||Leaves||Body Swelling: Leaf paste made into peanut sized pills, 2 pills are administered orally twice a day till cure.|
|51||Lamiaceae||Hyptis sauveolens||Shrub||Sirnatulasi||Root||Fever: 5ml of root decoction is administered twice a day for 3days.|
|Ocimum americanum||Herb||Kukkatulasi||Leaves||Fits: The leaves of this plant along with black pepper fruits and garlic cloves are crushed into a paste and the paste is given in doses of 2 spoonfuls twice
a day for 15 days.
|52||Nyctaginaceae||Boerhaavia diffusa||Herb||Atikamamidi||Whole plant||HIV: Whole plant of this along with Centella asiatica and Piper longum are mixed in 5:3:2 proportion and ground into paste. The extract thus obtained is administered in doses of 2 spoonfuls twice a day. This increases the
haemoglobin content, disease resistance and weight also.
|53||Amaranthaceae||Achyranthes aspera||Herb||Uttareni||Seeds||Antidote to Animal Bite: 3 spoonfuls of seed paste mixed in a glass of hot water is administered twice a day as an antidote for bite of any poisonous animal.|
|Leucorrhoea: 4 spoonfuls of whole plant juice mxed with a pinch of
camphor is administered daily twice for 5 days.
|54||Aristolochiaceae||Aristalochia indica||Climber||Nallaeswari||Roots||Diarrhoea: Roots ground with the roots of Holarrhena pubescens, Madhuca longifolia, Orthospihon rubicundus and caraway seeds. The paste with
water is administered for 5 days.
|Parasites||Badanika||Stem Bark||Asthma: 10-12 g of stem bark powder is administered daily twice for 3days.|
|56||Euphorbiaceae||Acalypha indica||Herb||Muripindi||Leaves||Jaundice: leaves with leaves of Justicia adhatoda, Eclipta prostrata, Centella asiatica, Phyllanthus amarus, Coccinea indica, and Momordica charantia are taken in equal quantities and ground and made into pills of soapnut seed size. One pill is administered with rice cunjee or butter milk twice a
day for 3days.
|Baliospermum montanum||Herb||Kondaamudam||Roots||Stomach ache: The roots are crushed with jaggery and the filtrate is taken orally twice a day for 2 days ays.|
|Bridelia retusa||Tree||Anemchettu||Stem bark||Chest pain: Stem bark crushed with that of Butea superba and Lannea coromandelica and the filtrate administered in doses of 1 spoonful twice a
day for 3days.
|Cleistanthus collinus||Tree||Kodisa||Stem bark||Suicide: Stem bark or fruits crushed in goat’s milk and the extract taken orally for committing suicide.|
|Euphorbia hirta||Herb||Pachabotlu||Leaves||Dysentery: 3 spoonfuls of leaf extract mixed with sugar is administered
twice a day for 7 days.
|Tree||Sinduram||Fruit||Anthelmintic: Fruit is made into powder and powder is used for powerful
|Phyllanthus amarus||Herb||Nelausiri||Leaves||Scalp infection: The leaves pound with the roots of Andrographis paniculata and the paste is applied over the scalp.|
|Phyllanthus emblica||Tree||Usiri||Stem||Bone Fracture: Stem galls ground with leaves of Vanda tessellate and the paste plastered over fractured bones.|
|Tree||Nemali chettu||Leaves||Blisters: Leaf made into paste and is applied on the affected parts.|
|Trema orientalis||Tree||Bogguchettu||Root bark||Epilepsy: 3 spoonfuls of root bark extract is administered twice a day for 20
|58||Moraceae||Ficus benghalensis||Tree||Marrichettu||Fruit||Boils: Latex is applied on the affected parts.|
|Ficus religiosa||Tree||Ravichettu||Stem bark||Diarrhoea: 2 spoonfuls of stem bark extract is taken orally once a day for
|Sterblus aspera||Tree||Barnika||Roots||Rheumatiod Arthritis: Dried roots pounded with the dried roots of Holarrhena pubescens and Piper longum. This powder is mixed with water and boiled along with a bit of earthen pot. This extract is taken orally till
|59||Orchidaceae||Vanda tessellata||Epiphytes||Vadanika||Roots||Fractures: Aerial roots are pounded to paste with the stem of Viscum articulatum, stem bark of Litsea glutinosa, tubers of Dioscorea oppositifolia and Dioscorea pentaphylla. The paste along with gingelly oil and blood of black hen is made in to pills, one pill is administered orally once a day for 9
|60||Costaceae||Costus speciosus||Herb||Bokachikadumpa||Rhizome||Abortion: 10g of Rhizome paste is administered twice a day for 5 to 7 days.|
|Herb||Nelatadi||Root||Cuts: Roots are made into paste, and the paste is applied on the affected
area till cure.
|62||Dioscoreaceae||Dioscorea bulbifera||Climber||Adavidumpa||Tubers||Sterility: Tuber paste is used orally from the 4th day of menstruation for a period of 21 days to attain sterility.|
|Dioscorea oppositifolia||Climber||Tellagadda||Tubers||Fractures: Tubers ground to paste along with tubers of Dioscorea pentaphylla, stem bark of Litsea glutinosa, aerial root tubers of Vanda tessellata and ste of Viscum articulatum. The paste along with gingerly oil and blood of black hen is made into pills. Two pills are given twice a day for
|Climber||Adaviginusateega||Tubers||Rheumatoid Arthritis: Tuber paste is applied externally over the affected
area till cure.
|63||Liliaceae||Asparagus racemosus||Climber||Sathavari||Roots||Diabetes: These tuberous roots with tuberous roots of Mirabilis Jalapa, Boerhavia chinesis and roots of Plumbago auriculata are taken in equal quantities and soaked in lime water for 2 days, dreid and powdered. 2 spoonfuls of powder mixed in a glass of cow milk is administered daily twice for 3days.|
|64||Arecaceae||Borassus flabellifer||Tree||Tadichettu||Stem||Muscle Pain: Stem peelings crushed with root bark of Alangium salvifolium
and the filtrate mixed with sugar, two spoonfuls of the mixture is a administered twice a day for 3days
|Caryota urens||Tree||Jilugu||Nuts||Dandruff: Nut powder made into paste applied to the head and bath is taken after one hour for twice a week.|
|Cyperus rotundus||Herb||Tungagaddi||Tubers||Diarrhoea: Three or Four of tuberous underground stolons are crushed and the extract along with few drops of honey is taken orally for about 3days.|
|Shrub||Veduru||Stem,leaves||Blood Purifier: 5 ml of stem and leaf extract is administered twice a day for
|Cynodon dactylon||Herb||Garikagaddi||Leaves||Dysuria: 10 Leaves are pestled with 7 leaves of Zizyphus mauritiana and 7 grains of raw rice and a mixture is prepared by adding 150 ml of water to it.
This is taken once in a day for about 10 days.
|Dendrocalamus strictus||Shrub||Sadanapuveduru||Leaves||Abortion: Tender leaves crushed along with seeds of Hibiscus cannabinus 5 spoonfuls of this extract is given orally twice a day for 5 days (Pregnancy
upto 3 months).
|Herb||Rellagaddi||Root||Eruptions on the Skin: 20 ml root decoction is given orally once a day for 5
|Vetiveria zizanoides||Herb||Vattiveru||Root||Allergy: Roots ground with that of Achyranthes aspera in doses of 10g in one glass of water once a day for 3days.|
This forest region is good resource and wealth for various flora and fauna because of several bioactive compounds are being extracted from traditional medicinal plants. There is a need to create and maintain a database on traditional botanical knowledge of the local inhabitants which helps to conserve the native phytodiversity. Due to anthropogenic activities, density as well as canopy of the forest was reduced knowingly or unknowingly. The present study alarming that, it is a high time to have a look on its conservation and management strategies to protect our heritage and forest wealth. So Government and Non Government organizations should involve in the conservation measures to maintain its glory forever which helps in developing novel drugs to treat ailments.
The authors are grateful to the ethnic groups Papikondalu wild life sanctuary area for providing valuable information, forest officials for their support in the deep forest areas.
I have read and understood AJETHNO policy on declaration of interests and declare that I have no competing interests.
Kovel foundation supported financially for the conduct of the research in the deep forests.