Didactic Curriculum for the Radiation Oncology

Daniel W. Golden*
Department of Nursing, University of Memphis, New York, USA
*Corresponding author: Daniel W. Golden, Department of Nursing, University of Memphis, New York, USA, E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: November 05, 2021; Accepted date: November 19, 2021; Published date: November 26, 2021
Citation: Golden D.W (2021) Didactic Curriculum for the Radiation Oncology Vol. 4 No. 7: 100

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Description

A structured didactic radiation oncology clerkship curriculum for medical students is in use at multiple academic medical centers. Objective evidence supporting this educational approach over the traditional clerkship model is lacking. This study evaluated the curriculum efficacy using an objective knowledge assessment. Medical students received the Radiation Oncology Education Collaborative Study Group (ROECSG) curriculum consisting of 3 lectures (Overview of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Biology/Physics, and Practical Aspects of Simulation/Radiation Emergencies) and a radiation oncology treatment-planning workshop. A standardized 20-item multiple choice question (MCQ) knowledge assessment was completed pre- and post-curriculum and approximately 6 months after receiving the curriculum. One hundred forty-six students at 22 academic medical centers completed the ROECSG curriculum from July to November 2016. One hundred nine students completed pre- and post-clerkship MCQ knowledge assessments (response rate 74.7%). Twenty-four students reported a prior rotation at a ROECSG institution and were excluded from analysis. Mean assessment scores increased from pre- to postcurriculum (63.9% vs 80.2%, P < .01). Mean MCQ knowledge subdomain assessment scores all improved post-curriculum (t test, P values < .01). Post-scores for students rotating de novo at ROECSG institutions (n = 30) were higher compared with prescores for students with ≥1 prior rotations at non-ROECSG institutions (n = 55) (77.3% vs 68.8%, P = .01), with an effect size of 0.8. Students who completed rotations at ROECSG institutions continued to demonstrate a trend toward improved performance on the objective knowledge assessment at approximately 6 months after curriculum exposure (70.5% vs 65.6%, P = .11)(1). Infectious complications are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with malignancies specifically when receiving anticancer treatments. Prevention of infection through vaccines is an important aspect of clinical care of cancer patients. Immuno compromising effects of the underlying disease as well as of antineoplastic therapies need to be considered when devising vaccination strategies. This guideline provides clinical recommendations on vaccine use in cancer patients including autologous stem cell transplant recipients, while allogeneic stem cell transplantation is subject of a separate guideline. The document was prepared by the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society for Hematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO) by reviewing currently available data and applying evidence-based medicine criteria. In patients with malignancies, infections significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality by delaying or impeding appropriate antineoplastic treatment. Besides prophylactic treatment, vaccination is effective in preventing infections. Patients receiving cancer treatments may experience potentially harmful long-term immune compromising side effects and loss of previous immunizations. Such cancer survivors deserve additional care to prevent infections, but uncertainties exist concerning optimal vaccination strategies, including the choice of vaccine (passive or active, dead or life-attenuated) and timeschedules of vaccination. Therefore, the Strength of Recommendation/Quality of Evidence sometimes applies in general for the respective recommendations and not necessarily on specific settings (e.g. prime-boost-strategy for pneumococcal vaccine). This guideline was developed to aid clinicians with decisions concerning vaccination strategies in cancer patients and recipients of autologous stem cell transplants (SCTs). These recommendations apply to the epidemiological situation in Germany, but are also applicable for regions with similar epidemiologic features (2). Neuron-Oncology Brain Metastases The goals of therapeutic and biomarker development form the foundation of clinical trial design, and change considerably from early-phase to late-phase trials. From these goals, decisions on specific clinical trial design elements, such as endpoint selection and statistical approaches, are formed. Whereas early-phase trials might focus on finding a therapeutic signal to make decisions on further development, late-phase trials focus on the confirmation of therapeutic impact by considering clinically meaningful endpoints. In this guideline from the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Brain Metastases (RANO-BM) working group, we highlight issues related to, and provide recommendations for, the design of clinical trials on local therapies for CNS metastases from solid tumours. We discuss endpoint selection criteria, the analysis appropriate for early-phase and late-phase trials, the association between tumour-specific and clinically meaningful endpoints, and possible issues related to the estimation of local control in the context of competing risks. In light of these discussions, we make specific recommendations on the clinical trial design of local therapies for brain metastases.(3)A lack of diversity has been observed in radiation oncology (RO), with women and certain racial/ethnic groups underrepresented as trainees, faculty, and practicing physicians. We sought to gain a nuanced understanding of how to best promote diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) based on the insights of RO department chairs, with particular attention given to the experiences of the few women and underrepresented minorities (URMs) in these influential positions. From March to June 2016, we conducted telephone interviews with 24 RO department chairs (of 27 invited). Purposive sampling was used to invite all chairs who were women (n = 13) or URMs (n = 3) and 11 male chairs who were not URMs. Multiple analysts coded the verbatim transcripts.(4) Based on this background, a call to re-launch a discussion about the future of CST led to the third European consensus meeting on communication in cancer care, organized by the Swiss Cancer League. During this meeting, which brought together European experts in the field of clinical communication and training of communication in the oncology setting, oncology clinicians, representatives of the European Society of Medical Oncology and a member of the European Oncology Nursing Society, the recommendations of the second European consensus meeting were updated and expanded. The expanded recommendations recall the guiding principles of communication in cancer care, underline the important role of clinician’s self-awareness, and of relational and contextual factors in clinical communication, and provide direction for the further development of communication training. While the global workforce is approaching gender parity, women occupy a small number of management level positions across most professions, including healthcare. Although the inclusion of women into the membership of many oncology societies has increased, the under-representation of women in leadership roles within international and national oncology societies remains relatively consistent. Moreover, the exact status of women participating as board members or presidents of oncology societies or as speakers at oncology congresses was undocumented to date(5).

References

1. A.J. Ullmann (2012) Guideline for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases 2012: adults with haematological malignancies and after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT)Clin Microbiol Infect 18 :53-67. 2. T.E. Ercan (2005) Antibody titers and immune response to diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemic J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 27 (5): 273-277. 3. Soycan LY (2014)Assessment of immune response following immunization with DTP/Td and MMR vaccines in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemic Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 31 (7): 656-66. 4. A. van der Does-van den Berg(1981) Immunity to diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, and poliomyelitis in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia after cessation of chemotherapy Pediatrics, 67 (2):222-229. 5. H.M. Yousuf (1997)Influenza among hospitalized adults with leukemia Clin Infect Dis 24 (6): 1095-1099. 

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