A Short Note on Immunology and Medical Microbiology

Nivetha D*

Department of Microbiology, Fergusson College, Pune, India

*Corresponding author: Nivetha D

E-mail: [email protected]

Tel: +91 9752162785

Department of Microbiology, Fergusson College, Pune, India

Received: August 08, 2021, Accepted: August 22, 2021, Published: August 30, 2021

Citation: Nivetha D (2021) A Short Note on Immunology and Medical Microbiology. Adv Tech Clin Microbiol. Vol.3 No.1:101


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The diseases like infectious disease, cholera, and infectious disease, that were believed to be eradicated, have fiercely remerged. The re-emergence and new mortify agents may well be the results of mutations within their order and changes occurring in the atmosphere. during this chapter, basic conception of the system and a few of the diseases of the skin, alimentary tract, system nervous, and system respiratory caused by microorganisms square measure mentioned at the side of sexually transmitted diseases and characterization of pathogens. Immune system 1st acknowledges the infective agent so offers a response against that infective agent [1]. Thus, upon recognition of the mortify agent, it triggers the effector response that helps within the elimination of the infective agent. In our body there square measure distinct effector responses for pathogens; so, there square measure 2 styles of immune reactions: the innate immune reaction and accommodative or non-inheritable immune response though self-/non-self-recognition is that the hallmark of the 2 responses, the accommodative system is way a lot of various, is restricted, and has memory in distinction to innate immune responses.

We are continuously exposed to several pathogens through inhalation, ingestion, and touch. The system protects United States from the bulk of those pathogens as flatworms, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. We have additionally witnessed tremendous progress within the bar and treatment of infectious diseases; still, they continue to be a serious challenge and square measure to blame for major explanation for death and incapacity worldwide. The immune system’s memory response and vaccination have resulted in complete obliteration of the many diseases. Our system is incredibly accommodative and consists of a spread of cells and molecules that play a lively role in protective United States [2]. It not solely protects United States from the surface mortify agents however also capable of recognizing the body’s own elements. It acknowledges them as self and doesn't induce response against them. It’s called self-/non-self-discrimination. Generally because of bound defects or alternative reasons once the system isn't ready to differentiate self, then it mounts associate attack on self-components resulting in pathology. The importance of the system was recognized by early work of Doctor and Louis Pasteur; they recognized the talents of the system, and since then the system was bit by bit being explored and it set the inspiration of medical specialty.

However, day-by-day microbes sitting health risks as new strains are unceasingly being evolved. Several therapy agents are developed to regulate the unfold and infections. However, microbes are unceasingly developing the power of their survival with emergence of latest strains and properties. Antibiotic resistance is going on with all categories of microbes sitting a significant clinical downside in managing infections [3].

The immune system acknowledges and responds non-specifically against infective agent, whereas accommodative or noninheritable system mediates specific response and remembers the infective agent when interacting with it [4]. The study of medical specialty diode to the expansion of medical biological science, that deals with identification, and mechanism of action of infectious agents. The disease-causing organism’s square measure known as pathogens and their mode of assaultive the host and its effects on host is pathological process. The key human pathogens square measure viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites that square measure motivates agents of the many diseases. The system responds otherwise for these mortify agents. In contrast to bacterium, fungi, and parasites that square measure capable of freelance growth, the viruses need the host cell for the multiplication [5]. Whenever there's a state of misfunctioning of any immune elements due to genetic defects or due to noninheritable sickness as non-inheritable immunological disorder syndrome (AIDS) caused by human immunological disorder virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2), the system isn't ready to respond naturally to infectious agents.


1 Challen R, Brooks PE, Read JM, Dyson L, Tsaneva AK, et al. (2021) Risk of mortality in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern 202012/1: Matched cohort study. BMJ 372:n579.

2 Ascoli CA (2021) Could mutations of SARS-CoV-2 suppress diagnostic detection. Nat Biotechnol 39:274-275.

3 Robin X, Turck N, Hainard A, Tiberti N, Lisacek F, et al. (2011) PROC: An open-source package for R and S+ to analyze and compare ROC curves. BMC Bioinform 12:77.

4 Buchan BW, Ledeboer NA (2014) Emerging technologies for the clinical microbiology laboratory. Clin Microbiol Rev 27:783-822.

5 Rhoads DD, Sintchenko V, Rauch CA, Pantanowitz L (2014) Clinical microbiology informatics. Clin Microbiol Rev 27:1025-47.

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