The current study was being performed to evaluate the birth complications in diabetic mothers; including both maternal and foetal complications; miscarriages. The nature of study was observational cross-sectional study. The study was being taken place at different hospitals, clinical settings, and maternity homes of Lahore during September 2016 to November 2016. The demographic data, family history, socio-economic history, indications, examination findings, results, lab findings etc. were recorded. Total 200 pregnant diabetic patients were evaluated for this study. The age limit for this study was 18-40 years. The patients were being analyzed for their FBS/BSR or HbA1c findings and the type of diabetes was being recorded.
Out of 200 patients, 81% had GDM while the remaining patients were being presented with pregestational diabetes (type I 5%, type II 14% patients). Most of the GDM cases were being diagnosed during 5th to 8th week of pregnancy. Out of 200 pregnancies, 20.5% (41) of these patients had normal pregnancies, and had no major foetal complications except uncontrolled sugar level in mothers. Remaining 79.5% (159) pregnancies/deliveries were associated with some major complications including respiratory distress, macrosomia, hypoglycaemic babies, CVS malformations and still births or miscarriages.
The ratio of normal vaginal delivery to CS was found out to be 29% to 76%. The major indications for these CS deliveries were placental abruption (19.74%), dystocia (14.47%), uterine rupture (13.16%), breech position (6.58%), fetal distress (46.05%) and to some extent previous CS. The miscarriages were being associated with hypertension (41.5%), polyhydramnios (22%), Hughes syndrome (12.2%), and uncontrolled sugar level (24.3%). In our study population TT immunization status was good i.e. 76%. Diabetes is still a major problem of birth complications and miscarriages. Public awareness program is required to educate the people about reproductive health and to motivate them to undergo BSR/FBS during pregnancy prior to 24th gestational weeks to diagnose for GDM.