Clay minerals are alumino-silicate minerals that are very common in nature and produce low-cost products. Clay minerals chemical and biogeochemical features are of interest to scientists. Several nanostructured clay hybrid materials derived from ion exchange and covalent bonding have been developed for environmental applications such as the removal of inorganic contaminants, herbicides, and insecticides from solution. Clay minerals and their derivatives have a wide range of biological characteristics. They play an important role in microbial inhibition, which is influenced by a variety of parameters including pH, the presence of metals and metal ions, and a variety of processes. Clay materials have seen an increase in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications in recent years, owing to researchers' interest in developing low-cost alternative materials for problem solving in medicine and pharmaceutical science. Clay minerals and their derivative materials are widely used as dietary supplements, medicinal formulations and delivery methods, dermatology, pelotherapy, and fangotherapy in various sectors. Clay minerals are also used orally to help calm the intestines and eliminate pollutants.