Infections are common complications among patients on chronic hemodialysis. According to Western medicine literature, hemodialysis patients with a catheter have a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of hospitalization for infection and death compared with patients with an arteriovenous fistula or graft. Infection complications are thought to occur in ~15 - 40% of CRBSIs. These are most common for S aureus infections, with endocarditis being the most common. Reports in the literature vary between 6% and 34% in all cases of CRBSI. Mortality is highest with S aureus infection complicated by metastatic complications, associated with 30% to 50% of mortality in these patients.