Iron deficiency with or without anemia and perspectives of perioperative management in children

The incidence of iron deficiency without anemia (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is 7% and 10% respectively in children aged one to three years in the USA [1-6]. The prevalence of ID varies from 6.6% to 75% and that of IDA from 0.9% to 76% with high values found in low income countries [1-6]. Etiologies of ID and IDA varie according to the clinical settings and comprise insufficient dietary iron intake (exclusive breastfeeding, cow milk without supplements, insufficient diet…), malabsorption due to gastrointestinal disease (e.g coelic disease), acute or chronic blood loss (gastrointestinal pathologies, urinary tract disease, blood loss due to surgery), menstruations and genetic disorders like mutations of TMPRSS6 [7-10]. Symptoms and signs of anemia varie depending on the severity, acute and chronic evolution. They can present as fatigue, pallor, low blood pressure, palpitations, tachycardia, cardiac failure, stroke, neurodevelopmental alteration, growth impairement and pica.

Author(s): Claudine Kumba

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