Cancer immunotherapy entails the application of treatment techniques that aim to manipulate the immune system through the use of immunological agents such as cytokines, vaccines, cell therapies, and humoral, transfection agents. The host's anti-tumor response must be stimulated by raising the number of effector cells and the synthesis of soluble mediators, while the host's suppressor mechanisms must be reduced by producing a tumour killing environment and regulating immunological checkpoints. Immunotherapy appears to work better in cancers that are more immunogenic. In 1970, bladder cancer became the first indication for immunotherapy. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are an interesting clinical research topic in bladder cancer. Despite the fact that breast cancer is immunologically quiet, multiple preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that immunotherapy may enhance clinical outcomes for breast cancer patients. New immune-based cancer treatments are now being developed for cervical cancer, brain cancer, head and neck cancer, and colorectal and esophageal malignancies.

Author(s): Takeaki Osakabe

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