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Euro Heart Failure 2020: A case of undiagnosed global LV hypokinesia in pneumonic patient- NirajKhatri Sapkota- Chitwan Medical College

Case report: Patient of age 20 years old visited medicine OPD complaining of dyspnoea and dysphagia, diaphoresis  with sign of ,tachypnea (21 breathe per minute)and tachycardia of 150 btm with blood pressure 90/60,  he has history of 12 years pneumonia repeated treatment with recent diagnosis of tuberculosis,  treated by anti tuberculosis medication before 6 months, his weight was  25 kg at the moment of visit, in his previous visit to different clinician, suspected to have cancer due to his reduced weight  indication, due to dyspnoea symptoms, prescribed asthmatic medication which he undergone for 15 days   for example salmeterol, ipratropium, emsolone, fluticasone before the visit to our OPD, during this course of medication his shortness of breath exacerbated and  along with difficulty in swallowing hence he forced to come to visit us.

During our OPD visit of his examination - He was suspected to suffer from multiple organ problem due to demonstrated  symptomatic status like as tachycardia (heart beat of 150), dyspnoea, dysphagia (unable to swallow) and more focussed symptom was critical reduction in weight 25 kg in 10 years of time, hence he was referred to Cardiology department ,for further examination expecting that there must be involved of cardiac problem if not we will rule out it.

On visit to cardiology department,  Echo test was said to perform, not performed till his this age of 20 years, before visit to us.

Test performed for the diagnosis in our Hospital: Blood test, LFT, ECG, ECHO

Test result: Upon confirmation at our establishment, Chitwan Medical College Teaching 1, Nepal he denied angina or ongoing cardiovascular breakdown side effects. He experienced transthoracic echocardiography that uncovered an EF of 36% with serious worldwide left ventricular (LV) hypokinesia. His reverberation impression uncovered Global LV hypokinesia. Based on reverberation test result he was endorsed spironolactone, metoprolol, and one anti-infection to keep from contamination improve and reinforces the muscle of heart with the goal that his anticipation of indications be corrected in supposition to rebuild the cardiovascular framework and to upgrade simpler life survivality.

Conclusion: This is away from instance of long haul pneumonia initiated Global left ventricular hypokinesia, under transthoracic examination showed LV hypokinesia.

Keywords: ventricular assist device left ventricular clot, heart failure

Discussion: Some time doctor and clinician just focus on the indicative element focussed to that organ issue, and they get confounded on the specific organ disappointment or relationship of the concerned part.

Introduction: Left ventricular (LV) clumps were, some time ago, a typical event, particularly after foremost myocardial dead tissue in patients with diminished left ventricular launch portion (LVEF). Embolic occasions in these patients are normal without anticoagulation happening in 10-40% of patients [1, 2]. In spite of the fact that anticoagulation treatment diminishes the hazard, it doesn't forestall embolization totally [3]. Bulge and versatility of blood clot are the most significant indicators of embolic occasions [2]. Since enormous and versatile thrombi are moderately uncommon, no investigations address the danger of embolization of such clusters. Besides, the writing gives little direction on best ways to deal with the board of such patients, particularly those with low LVEF. In this paper, we are introducing a progression of patients with enormous and portable LV thrombi in the setting of diminished LVEF, and investigate careful expulsion of apical LV clots with ensuing left ventricular help gadget (LVAD) embed as a practical alternative of treatment.

Methods: We depict the administration of three patients with enormous portable distending LV thrombi, all rewarded carefully. All patients gave composed educated agree to the strategy and information assortment. Moral endorsement was postponed given the review observational plan. Patients were worked in the period between January 1 and July 31, 2013.

Results: Case 1. A 63-year-old male as of late determined to have non-ischemic expanded cardiomyopathy was admitted to the medical clinic with cardiogenic stun, hypotension, seriously diminished LV work and a huge apical clots. An echocardiogram uncovered a reasonably widened LV with worldwide hypokinesis and LVEF 5-10%, safeguarded right ventricular capacity with somewhat raised right ventricular systolic weights, and a huge distending apical blood clot estimating 3.3 cm x 2.5 cm. As a result of moderately unblemished right ventricular capacity, the doctors continued with thrombectomy combined with LVAD implantation.

The ventriculotomy was performed on the summit to accomplish the most ideal site for good representation of the LV chamber for cluster evacuation, just as perfect situation for the LVAD inflow cannula Implantation. The clots was expelled, and a lot of time was spent cleaning the ventricular cavity between trabeculae.

The LVAD was then effectively embedded (HeartMate II). The patient was in this way released home and is right now (April 2014) being considered for heart transplant.

Case 2. A 50-year-old male introduced to an outside emergency clinic with dyspnea and reciprocal leg edema. He was found to have right popliteal and left back tibial vein profound vein apoplexy.

Other obsessive conditions emerged: pneumonia, raised liver catalysts, coagulopathy, intense kidney injury, and left lower furthest point wound contamination. He was treated with anti-infection agents, however logically exacerbated creating serious LV brokenness in the setting of septic stun, requiring intubation and emanant move to our emergency clinic.

Echocardiography on confirmation uncovered a LVEF of 15-20%, worldwide hypokinesis with apical akinesis, an enormous apical blood clot estimating 42 mm x 35 mm (Figure 1), enlarged right ventricle, and a potential right ventricular clots.

Transthoracic echocardiogram of patient 2 (apical four chamber view) showing protruding, pedunculated thrombus attached at the left ventricular apex.

Also, Doppler ultrasound affirmed the nearness of occlusive thrombi inside the privilege popliteal and peroneal veins.


The patient was treated with warfarin in the outside medical clinic, yet he created supratherapeutic INR, and the anticoagulant was ended. Given the patient's biventricular brokenness, and probability future heart transplant, a BiVAD (Thoratec) was embedded. In the working room, the LV peak was cored, which uncovered the nearness of a lot of sorted out blood clot on the summit, septum, and foremost divider that was painstakingly expelled.


The BiVAD was effectively embedded, and the patient was released home. A half year later he experienced uneventful BiVAD explant and orthotopic heart transplant.


Case 3. A multi year old male had a past clinical history huge for coronary corridor illness, incessant lymphocytic leukemia, and intense promyelocytic leukemia that was treated with arsenic five weeks before introduction at an outside emergency clinic. A 2D echocardiogram uncovered moderate worldwide hypokinesis, extreme hypokinesis of the mediocre and inferoseptal myocardium, and an enormous apical blood clot estimating 25 mm x 17 mm 

Transthoracic echocardiogram of patient 3 showing the LV filled with thrombus. LV = Left ventricle.

Because of the expanded danger of stroke and contraindication to full anticoagulation (he built up an enormous hematoma of the thigh soon after inception of heparin and warfarin) careful expulsion of the LV apical blood clot was performed. During medical procedure, a ventriculotomy on a thumping heart was performed at the zenith going towards the sub-par divider. A huge blood clot was envisioned in the peak and expelled.

There was additionally an obvious region of scarring on the inferoseptal district and the peak poorly that was plicated preceding shutting the ventriculotomy.

The patient was released home fourteen days after medical procedure. At the half year development, a standard echocardiogram uncovered an intermittent LV apical blood clot. The patient passed on a quarter of a year later because of sepsis in the setting of pancytopenia.


In this case series, we gave three patients huge portable projecting LV thrombi rewarded carefully. The result of the intercession was acceptable in all patients. Just a single patient (Case 3) kicked the bucket, however from reasons random to the blood clot as his course was convoluted by hematologic threat, hypercoagulable state, and repeat of LV blood clot.

All patients had a portable LV blood clot found by echocardiogram that, we felt, required dire careful thrombectomy. None of these three patients encountered an embolic neurologic occasion or sequela of thromboembolism after treatment.Compared to wall painting non-pedunculated LV thrombi, pedunculated portable thrombi are related with the most noteworthy danger of foundational embolization, just as repetitive embolism following anticoagulation treatment alone [4].

As of now, no investigations are accessible to pick the best system in such cases. In an investigation estimating the drawn out results of treatment techniques, the general danger of fundamental thromboembolism would in general be higher in those rewarded with anticoagulation versus those that experienced careful resection (17.7% versus 0%) [4]

However, this examination incorporated all LV coagulations, with no thought of size and portability. As per the writing, huge and portable thrombi are regularly rewarded with careful methodology (thrombectomy) [5,6,7,8,9]. Be that as it may, there are restricted information on the results.

The two patients with cutting edge HF had the need of earnest mechanical helped flow; this circumstance was especially testing in light of the fact that the enormous coagulation ought to be totally expelled to forestall siphon apoplexy and ensuing fundamental embolism. One of them had protected right ventricular capacity and one didn't, a LVAD and Bi-VAD was embedded, separately. Neither one of the patients had siphon apoplexy, and one experienced fruitful heart transplantation. Up until this point, just barely any case reports can be found in the writing joining the two treatment alternatives. Engin et al. portrayed 6 patients with LV clumps who experienced LVAD implantation [10]. Despite the fact that they didn't determine the size and qualities of the coagulations, two of their LV thrombi were not seen on echocardiography and were found simply after the ventricles were carefully opened.

In the third case, the LV coagulation repeated, and thinking reflectively, the medical procedure was pointless. Be that as it may, before the activity, hematologists imagined that general forecast might be acceptable, and the danger of fundamental embolization showed up genuine. We could have attempted a progressively traditionalist methodology, however the patient's powerlessness to endure anticoagulants didn't leave us numerous decisions.


We introduced a case arrangement proposing that even enormous, versatile, and projecting LV clusters can be effectively overseen carefully, including during LVAD implantation.

Note: This work is partly presenting at 31st European Heart and Heart Failure Congress June on 18-19, 2020 webinar

Author(s): NirajKhatri Sapkota

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