Objective: The main objective of the current work is to assess the ethnobotany and ethnopharmacognosy of Lamiaceae species from central Burkina Faso, and especially to focuss on the biological activities of Leucas martinicensis (Jacquin) R. Brown, Hoslundia opposita Vahl and Orthosiphon pallidus Royle Ex Benth.
Methods: Different methods have been used to reach the above objective such as the Ethnobotanical survey that concerned 13 Lamiaceae species of the study area, the phytochemicals screening, the antiradical activities via FRAP, DPPH and ABTS methods. The Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was also performed.
Results: The three species play an important role in the Burkinabe ethnomedicine as antibacterial since historical times. After some pharmacognostical surveys, the ethnobotanical investigation showed that these species are used in traditional medicine for different diseases treatment. All parts (stems, leaves, roots, flowers, fruits) of these species are used as antipyretic, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, anti -diarrheic, eyes cleanser, and to heal rheumatic diseases, skin diseases, etc. Phytochemical investigation of these species showed the presence of compounds such as flavonoids (mainly for Orthosiphon pallidus Royle ex Benth), polyphenols, saponins and coumarins. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) analysis allowed to get more insight into the polyphenolic compounds and led to the isolation of cafeic acid and two undetermined flavonoids. The in vitro biological activity showed high bioactivity of the extracts as free radical scavenger and anti-gout.
Conclusion: The current study is a boost up to recognize and to valorize scientifically the use of these three Lamiaceae species in the traditional medicines, particularly in Burkina Faso via the results obtained.