Statement of the Problem : Anemia is one of the most common public health problems in the world, affecting particularly chidren under 5 years of age with a prevalence in Africa of 60.2%. Anemia is characterized by the deficiency of red blood cells or haemoglobin in the blood due to malaria, diarrhea and iron deficiency in poor countries. Poverty forces people to use traditional medicine for its management. In this work we are evaluated the in vivo antianemic activity and in vitro antiplasmodial and antibacterial activities of the decoction of the bark of S. gabonensis. Methodology : The extract was prepared according to the traditional method and the phytochemical analyzes were made according to the standard methods. Anaemia was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of phenyl hydrazine at the dose of 40 mg / kg / day for two days. The decoction was given orally to anemic rats at 207.57 mg/kg body weight, once a day for 14 days. Microdilution was used to evaluate its efficacy against strains of Plasmodium falciparum (3D7) and gastroenteritis. Findings: Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloids, phenolic compounds, coumarins, flavonoids, saponosides and tannins. The decrease of haematological parameters (haemoglobin, red blood cells, hematocrit) induced by phenylhydrazine were significantly (P <0.05) restored after 7 days of treatment compared to the negative control group. The extract exhibited good antiplasmodial activity with IC50 = 16.39 ± 2.34 μg/mL and moderate activity on E. coli, E. aerogenes, S. flexneri and K. pneumoniae with MIC ≤1.024 μg/mL. This study confirms the use of the stem bark of gabonensis in traditional medicine and in the management of infantile anemia.