Cytogenotoxic assessment of aqueous extract of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) leaves on Allium cepa L. root-tip Meristem cells

The cytogenotoxicologic effect of Annona muricata Linn. (Guyabano) was assessed using Allium cepa L. root-tip meristem cells assay. A. cepa rooting was induced and exposed to the different concentrations (0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, and 7%) of hot water extract of A. muricata. The number of different mitotic phases and mitotic index were determined. The chromosomal aberrations were examined and the percentage incidence of aberrant cells was calculated. Results revealed that A. muricata extract exhibited cytotoxic and genotoxic effects and these were concentration dependent. Among the extract concentrations, 1% extract recorded the highest mitotic index of 85.59% whereas showed the lowest mitotic index of 7.82%. In terms of genotoxicity, all extract treated cells showed different chromosomal aberrations and these include chromosomal fragments, polyploids, bridging, and vagrant chromosome. The number of aberrant cells increased in increasing concentration of the extract. No chromosomal aberration was observed in cells exposed at 1% of extract and control. The 7% of extract significantly produced the highest incidence of 94.74% while the 3% of extract had the lowest incidence of 6.25%. Thus, A. muricata leaf extract could exhibit cytogenotoxic effects indicating that this plant at certain concentration is not safe for human consumption.

Author(s): Joseph C. Diaz, Jessica Joyce L. Jimenez, Ellen Joyce A. Pagoso, Julius V. Tomas and Rich Milton R. Dulay

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