Background: Respecting the cold chain (CC) is essential in the quality and safety of vaccination. The purpose of this work was to determine the factors influencing the operation of the cold chain. Methodology: it was a cross-sectional and observational study. The strategy consisted, after random sampling, of conducting a survey of a sample of 91 vaccinating agents from 26 integrated health centers (IHC) distributed in the seven Socio-Sanitary District (SSD) of Brazzaville. The data was collected over an eight-month period based on an individual interview with the agents, observation, examination of the documents of the vaccination unit and the cold chain. These data were recorded on a survey sheet. As a result, the study found that 72% of staff were trained and retrained for the Expanded Program on Immunization, 73% of CSIs had normal refrigerators, and 63% of centers did not have their current temperature records. In the event of refrigerator failure or load shedding, 30.7% of IHC exposed vaccines to inadequate temperatures; 53.8% keep vaccines at the nearest center and 46.2% of centers link vaccines to other products. At 92.3% the source of energy was the current. Conclusion: It appears that the respect of the chain of cold is not effective. Capacity building of staff and equipment is needed to make vaccination safer.
Keywords: Cold Chain, Vaccination, Integrated Health Centers.