Journal of Molecular Genetics and Medicine publishes novel, peer-reviewed research articles, short communication, case reports, review articles and many more, in broad sections of molecular biology, genetics, chromosomal structure, transcription and translation and its applications in medicine by gene therapy. Molecular medicine is a broad field, where physical, chemical, biological, bioinformatics and medical techniques are used to describe molecular structures and mechanisms, identify fundamental molecular and genetic errors of disease, and to develop molecular interventions to correct them.
Manuscripts submitted by the authors will serve as useful resources for future work in the field. Alternatively, manuscripts may describe a novel method of data analysis, which could be applied to publicly available data sets. Manuscripts submitted should provide a new approach to major incurable diseases. The editorial manager system facilitates a user friendly article submission, review and publication. Manuscripts that are thoroughly peer reviewed would ensure the best standards in the industry. The articles will be managed electronically, examined by a scientific committee and anonymous evaluators and published every month in HTML and PDF formats.
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Human Molecular Genetics is the investigation of the molecular basis of human hereditary ailment, developmental genetics, neurogenetics, chromosome structure and capacity, molecular aspects of malignancy genetics, gene therapy, biochemical genetics, significant advances in gene mapping and understanding of genome association.
Cancer is generally a disease of tissue growth regulation. All together for an ordinary cell to change into a disease cell, the qualities that control cell development and separation must be adjusted. The affected genes are separated into two general classifications. Oncogenes are genes that promote cell growth and proliferation. Tumor silencer genes are genes that repress cell division and survival. Dangerous change can happen through the development of novel oncogenes, the improper over-articulation of typical oncogenes, or by the under-expression or disabling of tumor silencer genes. Commonly, changes in multiple genes are required to transform a typical cell into a disease cell.
Molecular genetic testing is an accumulation of strategies used to analyse biological markers in the genome and proteome—the person's hereditary code and how their cells express their genes as proteins—by applying molecular science to medical testing. The system is utilized to diagnose and monitor disease, and choose which treatments will work best for individual patients. By examining the specifics of the patient and their disease, molecular diagnostics offers the possibility of customized solution.
These tests are valuable in a scope of therapeutic specialisms, including infectious disease, oncology, human leucocyte antigen typing, coagulation, and pharmacogenomics—the the genetic prediction of which medications will work best.
Molecular medicine is a wide field helps to understand the normal body functioning and disease pathogenesis at the molecular level by using physical, chemical, biological and medical techniques with the goal to develop molecular mediations to correct them. Molecular medicine is the application of Molecular Biology and Molecular Genetics to the understanding of human health and disease. It aims to understand how health is maintained and the origins and mechanisms of human diseases. The molecular medicine perspective emphasizes cellular and molecular phenomena and interventions rather than the previous conceptual and observational focus on patients and their organs.
Cellular medicine incorporates a wide range of biological processes from structure and function of biomolecules to cell physiology to understand the abnormal biological function at the cellular level. Cell therapy is used for the treatment of diseases like cancer by injecting living whole cell or maturation of a specific cell population in a patient. Cell therapy is expanding its repertoire of cell types for administration. Cell therapy treatment strategies include isolation and transfer of specific stem cell populations, administration of effector cells, induction of mature cells to become pluripotent cells, and reprogramming of mature cells. Administration of large numbers of effector cells has benefited cancer patients, transplant patients with unresolved infections, and patients with chemically destroyed stem cells in the eye.
Gene therapy is an exploratory procedure that utilizes genes to treat or avoid diseases. In future, this method may enable specialists to treat a disorder by embeddings a gene into a patient's cells instead of using medications or surgery. Analysts are trying a few ways to deal with quality treatment, including:
Replacing mutated copy of gene with a healthy copy of gene.
Inactivating, or "knocking out," a changed gene that is working improperly.
Bringing another gene into the body to help fight an infection.
Genomic Medicine is the integration and application of genomic technologies allows biomedical researchers and clinicians to collect data from large study population and to understand disease and genetic bases of drug response. Genomic medicine is based on the premise that understanding how our genomes affect health and disease will allow for an individualized medical approach, leading to more precise, more personal care.It includes genome structure, functional genomics, epigenomics, genome scale population genomics, systems analysis, pharmacogenomics and proteomics. Genomic medicine is making an impact in the fields of oncology, pharmacology, rare and undiagnosed diseases, and infectious disease.
Genetic engineering is the genetic make-up of an organism’s genome using biotechnology tools and the one of the most powerful and promising application of the genetic engineering involves the treatment of genetic disorders like sickle cell anemia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, cystis fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, Huntington’s chorea and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Now, medical Scientists can identify more than 3000 disorders happens because of the error in individuals DNA. By this technique scientists modify the genome of an organism. Creation of genetically modified organisms requires recombinant DNA. Recombinant DNA is a combination of DNA from different organisms or different locations in a given genome that would not normally be found in nature. The goal is to add one or more new traits that are not already found in that organism. Examples of genetically engineered organisms currently on the market include plants with resistance to some insects, plants that can tolerate herbicides, and crops with modified oil content.
Obesity is a complex multifactorial chronic disease condition where extra body fat storage cause severe health problems like heart diseases, obstructive sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancers, which in turn reduce life expectancy. These disorders are also referred to as Obesity-related Comorbidities, and have a significant impact on morbidity rates. Obesity is one of the main reasons of preventable death. Body mass index (BMI) is a tool for monitoring obesity and is closely related to both percentage body fat and total body fat, BMI more than 30 Kg/m2 considered as obese and with the range 25-30 kg/m2 as overweight. The common cause of obesity is poor dietary habit, lack of physical work, genetic susceptibility whereas in some cases genes, medications, psychiatric illness and endocrine disorders are the cause.
Molecular diagnosis is a technique used to detect specific sequences in DNA or RNA that may or may not be associated with disease, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), deletions, rearrangements, insertions and others. The technique is used to diagnose and monitor disease, detect risk, and decide which therapies will work best for individual patients. The occurrence of molecular diagnostics is due to advances in biology that have resulted in an understanding of the mechanisms of normal and disease processes at the molecular level. Prior to this understanding, many disease states were diagnosed from morphologic observations. Molecular diagnostics can also be used to monitor a patient’s response to a specific drug treatment.
Molecular genetic test identifies the variations in genes, chromosomes or protein with the goal to identify a suspected genetic condition. Genomic technologies are reaching the point of being able to discover genetic variation in patients with high precision and reduced rate, offering the promise of fundamentally altering medicine. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person’s chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. More than 1,000 genetic tests are currently in use, and more are being developed. Genetic testing is voluntary. Because testing has benefits as well as limitations and risks, the decision about whether to be tested is a personal and complex one.
The epigenome contains the majority of the chemical compounds that have been added to entirety of one’s DNA (genome) as an approach to control the expression of all the genes inside the genome. The substance mixes of the epigenome are not part of the DNA sequence, but rather are attached to DNA. Epigenomic changes stay as cells divide and sometimes again can be acquired in next generation. Natural impacts, for example, a person's diet and exposure to pollutants, can likewise affect the epigenome. Epigenetic changes can help decide if genes are turned on or off and can impact the generation of proteins in specific cells, ensuring that only necessary proteins are produced.
Metabolomics is the developing study of estimation and investigation of metabolites, for example, sugars and fats, in the cells of life forms at particular circumstances and under particular conditions. The field of metabolomics covers with biology, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science. Metabolomics as a deciplane makes utilization of scientific procedures, for example, spectroscopy, chromatography, and multivariable analysis. Metabolomics enables researchers to quantify physiological impacts and to screen for adverse reactions to drugs. Metabolomics is important to doctors since it might prompt enhancements in the diagnosis and treatments of human diseases.
Medicinal biotechnology aims to produce pharmaceutical and diagnostic products for the prevention and treatment of human diseases using living cells and cell materials. The areas of application of medicinal biotechnology are genetic testing, drug production, gene therapy and pharmacogenomics. One of the major uses in biotechnology is for medicinal purposes. Modern applications of biotechnology continue to find promising new uses in the medicinal and health care fields. Modern biotechnology can be used to manufacture drugs more easily and cheaply, as they can be produced in larger quantities from existing genetic sources.
Nuclear medicine is the branch of medicine that includes the organization of radioactive substances with a specific end goal to analyze and treat infection. The scan performed in nuclear medicine are completed by a radiographer. This claim to fame of molecular medicine is sometimes referred to as endoradiology because the radiation emitted from inside the body is detected rather than being applied externally, as with an X-ray procedure.
Pharmacogenomics is the investigation of how genes influence a man's reaction to drugs. This moderately new field joins pharmacology and genomics to create successful, safe pharmaceuticals and measurements that will be tailored to a man's genetic makeup. Difference in genes affect the body's reaction to medications, these genetic variations will be utilized to predict whether a solution will be successful for a specific individual and to help prevent adverse drug reactions.
Proteomics is a quickly developing field of molecular biology that is concerned with the efficient, high-throughput way to deal with protein expression investigation of a cell or a living being. Typical results of proteomics examines are inventories of the protein content of differentially expressed proteins over multiple conditions.
The cell reacts to inner and outer changes by controlling the movement and level of its proteins; in this way changes in the proteome give a depiction of the cell in real life. Proteomics enables the understanding the structure, capacity and connections of the whole protein content in a particular living being.
Toxicogenomics is a scientific field which examines the connection among toxins and the genome. It combines the fields of toxicology and genomics to study the ways in which the body reacts to toxic exposure.
At the point when individuals are exposed to toxins, changes happen in their cells. A few genes might turned off, while others are turned on. This can in part be caused by the body's attempt to protect itself from the toxins, and it can be caused by the toxins themselves, with toxins activating or suppressing various areas of the genome. These progressions result in illness, and sometimes in death, in case of a few toxins.
Pathology is a significant component of the medical sciences to understand the nature of the disease and a major field in diagnosis and modern medicine. It incorporates a wide range of medical practices and bioscience research to diagnose disease mostly by analysing cells, tissues and body fluids. Molecular medicine is an emerging area that aims to understand the molecular determinants of disease and health for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment using physical, chemical, biological and medical techniques. It aims to understand how health is maintained and the origins and mechanisms of human diseases. The molecular medicine perspective emphasizes cellular and molecular phenomena and interventions rather than the previous conceptual and observational focus on patients and their organs.
A substance or a compound has a biological activity if it has direct effects on a living organism. These effects can both be adverse or beneficial depending on the substance, the dose or the bioavailability. Bioactive compounds are experiencing a growing interest in wide range of applications: geo-medicine, plant science, modern pharmacology, agrochemicals, cosmetics, food industry, nano bio-science etc. This is a very promising area in full development, which has resulted in research works more and more numerous, designed to diversify the resources of bioactive compounds and improve their salvage pathways or synthesis. Recognizing bioactive compounds and establishing their health effects are active areas of scientific investigation. There are exciting prospects that select bioactive compounds will lessen the risk of various diseases.
Author(s): Girolami Antonio, Cosi Elisabetta, Ferrari Silvia, Santarossa Claudia
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