All forms of life and the three environmental matrices of atmosphere, soils, and oceans form a closely integrated network that can be called the “biosphere.” Thus the biosphere is the system with four main internal, interacting components: air, water, soil, and life. Considering this system, what makes the biosphere dynamically distinct from other layers of Earth, such as lithosphere, mantle, or core, is undoubtedly the presence and influence of life.
Biomimicry is a relatively new design methodology that studies nature’s best ideas, abstracts its deep design principles, and then imitates these designs and processes to solve human problems. The term “biomimicry” comes from the Greek words “bios,” meaning “life,” and “mimesis,” meaning “to imitate.” Related to yet also different from terms in earlier use, such as “bionics” and “biomimetics,” biomimicry—an approach popularized by Janine Benyus in her 1997 bookBiomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature—entails the “conscious emulation of life’s genius” (Benyus 1997), utilizing design strategies that have been fine-tuned through 3.8 billion years of evolution.
Related Journals: International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems, Journal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems, Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability, Design Automation for Embedded Systems.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years). Climate change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather around longer-term average conditions (i.e., more or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects. Multiple lines of scientific evidence show that the climate system is warming. Many of the observed changes since the 1950s are unprecedented in the instrumental temperature recordwhich extends back to the mid-19th century, and in paleoclimate proxy records covering thousands of years.
Related Journals: Journal of Global Optimization, Global Social Welfare, Jindal Global Law Review, Global Business Perspectives, Global Health Research and Policy, Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research.
Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About 30% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests.
Biotic communities vary in size, and larger ones may contain smaller ones. Species interactions are evident in food or feeding relationships. A method of delineating biotic communities is to map the food network to identify which species feed upon which others and then determine the system boundary as the one that can be drawn through the fewest consumption links relative to the number of species within the boundary.
Geosciences include environmental geology, environmental soil science, volcanic phenomena and evolution of the Earth's crust. Biologists would analyze subsequent impacts to aquatic flora and fauna from increases in water turbidity. Physicists would contribute by assessing the changes in light transmission in the receiving waters.
Related Journals: Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology, Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation, Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology, Environmental Science, International Journal of Environment and Pollution.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution.
Related Journals: Journal of Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications, Journal of Pollution Effects & Control, Journal of Industrial Pollution Control, Environmental Pollution, International Journal of Environment and Pollution, Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution.
Atmospheric sciences focus on the Earth's atmosphere, with an emphasis upon its interrelation to other systems. Atmospheric sciences can include studies of meteorology, greenhouse gas phenomena, atmospheric dispersion modelling of airborne contaminants.
Related Journals: Journal of Marine Science: Research & Development, Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences.
The science that studies how the environment influences human health and disease. Environment in this background, means things in the natural environment like air, water and soil, and also all the physical, chemical, biological and social features of our surroundings.
Related Journals: Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Journal of Environmental Sciences, Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Research & Reviews: Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, International Journal of Environment and Pollution, American Journal of Environmental Sciences.
It is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the non-living components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. The network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment. Energy, water, nitrogen and soil minerals are other essential abiotic components of an ecosystem.
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