Reach Us 44-1522-440391

Diversity and indigenous uses of Some Ethno Medicinal Plants in Papikondalu wild life Sanctuary, Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India

D.Srinivasa Rao*, G.M.Narasimha Rao and P.Prayaga Murthy

Department of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India

*Corresponding Author:
D.Srinivasa Rao
Department of Botany
Andhra University
Visakhapatnam, India
E-mail: [email protected]
 
Visit for more related articles at American Journal of Ethnomedicine

Abstract

Objective: The main objective of the Present study deals with Ethno medicinal information collected on 173 plants species utilized by the tribal communities of papikondalu wild life sanctuary area.
Methods: The Papikondalu wild life sanctuary is thoroughly studied by repeated visits in different seasons of the year 2014 to 2015 covering the pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons to cover the overall sperectrum of vegetation. It helps in observing the developmental stages of medicinal plants species like vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages. The plants specimens were collected identified with the help of Flora of Presidency of Madras, Flora of Andhra Pradesh, Forest flora of Andhra Pradesh. The names of tribal doctors, other ethno medicinal knowledge peoples (Tribal men and Women) who have given the ethno medicinal information were recorded.
Results: The Present study deals with Ethno medicinal information on 173 plants species , belonging to 148 genera’s under 65 families utilized by the tribal communities of papikondalu wild life sanctuary area. Out of which 87 medicinal properties were recorded for human ailments. Out of 65 families 63 families belongs to Dicocts and 2 families are monocots
Conclusion: This forest region is good resource and wealth for various flora and fauna, but due to anthropogenic activities, density as well as canopy of the forest was reduced knowingly or unknowingly. It is a high time to have a look on its conservation and management strategies to protect our heritage and forest wealth.

Keywords

Diversity, ethno medicinal plants, Papikondalu wild life sanctuary, Therapeutic agents.

Introduction

India is well known as an “Emporium of medicinal plants”. About 70% of the rural folk depend on medicinal plants for their health care. India is the largest producer of medicinal plant products and is rightly called the “Botanical garden of the World”. Since ancient times, Ethnobotanical use of plants has been known and use of traditional medicine and medicinal plants in most developing countries as therapeutic agents for the maintenance of good health has been widely observed and accepted. The indigenous people of various regions have developed their own way of using plants for their health care and following their own culture, customs, folk songs and food habits. This knowledge is transferred through orally from one generation to another. Over exploitation of trade species, destructive way of collection, vulnerability due to anthropogenic pressures are some of the major threats to medicinal plants. Documentation of indigenous knowledge through ethno botanical studies is important for the conservation and utilization of biological resources [1-4]. The indigenous groups depend either directly or indirectly on the products of the forest for their livelihood and have down the ages, preserved the knowledge about the traditional and cultural uses of plants. [5] The Ethno medicinal studies in Andhra Pradesh have been conducted by Several Authors like [6-9]. The utilization of medicinal plants as a source of medicine amongst the tribal region of Papikondalu wild life sanctuary area has considerably neglected in state of Andhra Pradesh [10-12]. In India, 45,000 plant species have been identified, out of which about 15-20, 000 plants are of good medicinal value [13,14]. About 2, 500 plant species belonging to more than 1,000 genera are used by traditional healers. The World Health Organization estimates that 80% of the people in developing countries of the world rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs, and about 85% of traditional medicine involves the use of plant extract. Traditional medicine is widely used in India, particularly in rural areas, where 70% of the population lives. In India Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha are well popularized traditional medicinal systems for the treatment of various ailments. Therefore the present study focused to assessment the medicinal plants diversity in papikondalu wild life sanctuary of Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh to identify the species richness and Ethno medicinal uses and suggest conservation measures.

STUDY AREA

Papikondalu wild life sanctuary is spreads over 591Sq kms and across the two districts of East Godavari and West Godavari. This wild life sanctuary is a home to many species of flora and fauna and cuts through the papikonda range of hills in Eastern Ghats. The mountain range is covered with tropical and deciduous rain forests that provide views of the surroundings. Papikondalu wild life sanctuary has museum and an environmental education. The natural vegetation here makes it suitable for animals like tigers, panthers, four-hormed Antelopes, Hyenas, Sloth bear and many migrated birds flock here and make it their shelter for some times generally from May to October. The main vegetation of the region is generally tropical and dry deciduous type. The climate of the Region is typically temperate and consists of 3mainly distinct seasons i.e. summer season, Rainy season and winter season.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The entire area of the Papikondalu wild life sanctuary is thoroughly studied by repeated visits in different seasons of the year 2014 to 2015 covering the pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons to cover the overall sperectrum of vegetation. It helps in observing the developmental stages of medicinal plants species like vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages. The plants specimens were collected identified with the help of Flora of Presidency of Madras,15 Flora of Andhra Pradesh [16,17,18,19], Forest flora of Andhra Pradesh [20, 21, 22]. The names of tribal doctors, other ethno medicinal knowledge peoples (Tribal men and Women) who have given the ethno medicinal information were recorded. Plants specimens were collected either with flower or fruit, they were dried and poisoned with saturated solution of mercuric chloride in rectified spirit and herbarium specimens were prepared with their botanical name, vernacular name locality, collector names, voucher specimen number and deposited in the Herbarium of Botany department, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam. The informants were asked question in Telugu language understandable in most of the cases, otherwise in their local languages (Koya language) seeking help of paid local assistance regarding traditional uses of ethno medicinal plants and their local names and distribution. Finally the ethno medicinal information are given in according to Bentham and Hooker classification with other details such as Botanical name, local name, family, life form, used part and medicinal uses in Table-1.

Table 1: Utilization of Medicinal plants in Different types of ailments

S.No Ailments / Medicinal Properties No of Species S.No Ailments / Medicinal Properties No of Species
1 Abdominal Swelling 1 45 Fluent talk 1
2 Abortion 3 46 Fracture 3
3 Allergy 1 47 Galactagogue 1
4 Amoebic Dysentery 1 48 Gastric trouble 1
5 Anaemia 2 49 Gonorrhoea 1
6 Analgesic 1 50 Haematuria 1
7 Anthelmentic 3 51 Haemorrhage 1
8 Antidote to Animal Bite 1 52 Head ache 2
9 Antifertilit 1 53 Heart Pain 1
10 Asthma 9 54 Heart problems 1
11 Backache, Menorrhagia
& Weakness
1 55 Herpes 1
12 Black Quarter Disease
in Cattle
1 56 HIV 1
13 Blisters 2 57 Impotency 2
14 Blood Pressure 2 58 Inflammation 1
15 Blood Purifier 1 59 Intestinal Worms 1
16 Body pains 2 60 Jaundice 5
17 Body Swelling 1 61 Leucoderma 1
18 Boils 2 62 Leucorrhoea 5
19 Boils and Blisters 1 63 Malaria 2
20 Bone Fractures 3 64 Muscle Pain 1
21 Bronchitis 1 65 Night Blindness 1
22 Burns 3 66 Obesity 1
23 Chest pain 3 67 Paralysis 5
24 Chickenpox 1 68 Peptic Ulcer 3
25 Cobrabite 1 69 Peripheral Neuritis 1
26 Conception 1 70 Post natal Care 1
27 Constipation 1 71 Purgative 1
28 Cooling affect 1 72 Rheumatoid Arthritis 9
29 Cough and Cold 1 73 Rheumatism 1
30 Cuts 1 74 Scalp infection 1
31 Dandruff 2 75 Scorpion sting 3
32 Diabetes 2 76 Sexual Potency 1
33 Diarrhoea 10 77 Snake Bite 2
34 Dysentery 7 78 Sterility 1
35 Dysmenorrhoea 3 79 Stomachache 3
36 Dysuria 1 80 Stomach pain 1
37 Ear diseases 1 81 Stomach Ulcers 1
38 Eczema 1 82 Suicide 1
39 Epilepsy 4 83 Swellings 1
40 Eruptions on the Skin 1 84 Toothache 2
41 Fertility 2 85 White Discharge 1
42 Fever 7 86 Whooping Coug 2
43 Fish Poison 1 87 Wounds 1
44 Fits 1

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The Present study deals with Ethno medicinal information on 173 plants species , belonging to 148 genera’s under 65 families utilized by the tribal communities of papikondalu wild life sanctuary area. Out of which 87 medicinal properties were recorded for human ailments. Out of 65 families 63 families belongs to Dicocts and 2 families are monocots i.e Arecaceae representing 3 species and Poaceae representing 4 species. Ethno medicinally the most dominant family are Fabaceae with 11 species followed by Euphorbiaceae (8), Caesalpiniaceae, Combretaceae, Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae is each (7) Mimosaceae, Rubiaceae and Verbinaceae (6), Malvaceae and Poaceae (5), Rutaceae, Ancardiaceae Asteraceae and Sterculiaceae (4) Capparidaceae Minispermaceae and Meliaceae 3 Species each (Table-1) According to the habitation of plants Trees are the most utilized plants (69) followed by Herbs (45), Climbers(32) Shrubs (25) Epiphytes and Parasites are each one. (Fig- 2) Different parts of the medicinal plants are using by the traditional practitioners among them Stem bark(30%) are used for the preparation of medicines predominantly followed by Leaf and Root each(24.7%), whole plant (6.93%), Seeds (6.35%), Fruits(4.04%) and Tubers( 3.40%) Fig-3. Ethno medicinal plants are used in treatment of different diseases in human body such as Malaria, Paralysis, Fever, eye problems, Throat infection, Kidneys problems and teeth problems etc. Most of the species are used for Diarrhoea (10) species followed by rheumatic arthritis and Asthma each (6), Dysentery and Fever (6) Paralysis, Jaundice and Leucorrhoea (5) Epilepsy(4) Stomachache and Peptic ulcers (3), the following details is given by (Table-2 & Fig- 1). The area of study is rich in floral diversity with strong traditions of Ethno medicinal practices l practices existing among the ethnic communities. Therefore, there is a strong need to take necessary steps for the conservation and sustainable use of these medicinal plants, which are the source of food, herbal medicine and a variety of materials for daily use of the ethnic communities.

american-journal-ethnomedicine-medicinal

Figure 1: Ailments wise Ethno medicinal Analysis

american-journal-ethnomedicine-analysis

Figure 2: Life form wise Ethno medicinal Analysis

american-journal-ethnomedicine-partwise

Figure 3: Useful part wise analysis

Table 2: Diversity and indeginous uses of Ethnomedicinal Plants

S.No Family Plant Name Lafe form Local name Used part Medicinal uses
1 Rananculaceae Naravalia zeylanica Climber Pullabatchala Stem Toothache: Stem is used to cure toothache.
2 Dilleniaceae Dillenia pentagyna Tree Revadi chettu Stem Rheumatoid Arthritis: 3 inches of stem bark is crushed with  sufficient quantity of salt and the extract is administered orally daily once
for 3days.
3 Annonaceae Annona squamosa Tree Seethaphalam Leaves and Bark Asthma: 10 leaves and 30 g of bark are boiled in 1 glass of water till it reduces to half glass and given orally once a day till cure.
4 Menispermaceae Cissampelos pareira Climber Adavibankateega Leaves Intestinal Worms: Leaves crushed with that of Androgaphis paniculata and
Pongamia pinnata and the extract given orally 3 sponfuls thrice a day for
Cocculus hirsutus Climber Dusara teega Roots Rheumatoid Arthritis: 12 g o f roots crushed with 2 long pepper seeds are
mixed in a cup of goat milk and the extract is taken daily once for a fortnight.
Tinospora cordifolia Climber Tippateega Tubers Stomach Ulcers: 3 spoonfuls of tuber extract is given orally twice a day till cure.
5 Pepavaraceae Argemone mexicana Herb Balarakasi Roots,Seeds and Leaves Malaria: Roots are ground with seeds and leaves and the extract two spoonfuls is given once a day for 4 days.
6 Capparaceae Capparis zeylanica Climber Adonda Roots Paralysis: Root bark ground with aerial root of Ficus benghalensis and tail of garden lizard and the paste is made into pills.  2 pills are given per day for  40 days.
Cleome gynandra Herb Vaminta whole plant Peptic Ulcer: 50 ml of the plant juice is given orally once a day for every
3days for about 6 times.
Cleome viscosa Herb Kukkavaminta whole plant Peptic Ulcer: 50 ml of the plant juice is given orally once a day for every
3days for about 6 times.
7 Violaceae Hybanthus enneaspermus Herb Ratnapurusha whole plant Impotency: 3 spoonfuls of whole plant extract is mixed with goats milk and administered once a day for 30 days.
8 Cochlospermace
ae
Cochlospermum
religiosum
Tree Kondagogu Stem Bark Bone Fractures: Stem bark is ground into paste and it is plastered over the
effected area.
9 Malvaceae Abutilon indicum Shrub Tuttru Benda Leaf Scorpion sting: Leaf paste is applied over the  spot of scorpior sting
Pavonia zeylanica Shrub Karubenda Leaf Purgative: 2-3 leaves are chewed after meals
Sida acuta Herb Nelabenda Leaf Scorpion Sting: Leaf paste applied over the bitten part.
Sida cordata Herb Gayapuaku Leaf Paralysis: 2 spoonfuls of leaf juice is mixed with goat milk and administered
twice a day till cure.
Sida cordifolia Herb Chirubenda Seeds Sexual  Potency:  Seeds  made  into  peanut  seed  size  pills.                                                                   2  pills  are administered once a day for 15 days.
10 Bombacaceae Bombax ceiba Tree Buruga Roots Fertility:Root powder taken orally with glass of cow milk increases the fertility
Ceiba pentandra Tree Tella Buruga Stem bark White Discharge:50 ml Juice is extracted from stem bark and a pinch of zeera powder and  Sugar is mixed to taste and given orally before breakfast
in alternate days
11 Sterculiaceae Helicteres isora Tree Melikaya Roots Scorpion Sting:   Root decoction is given orally immediately after the  snake
bite.
Pterospermum
xylocarpum
Tree Lolugu Stembark Whooping Coug  2ml of stem bark decoction is given orally once a day for
3days for infants
Sterculia urens Tree Kovelachettu,Tapsi Stem bark Rheumatoid Arthritis: Stem bark ground with turmeric and the filtrate is mildly heated and administered in 2 spoonfuls twice a day for 5 days.
Waltheria indica Herb NallaBenda Leaf Cough and Cold:Dry leaf powder is boiled in water and used agenist cough
12 Tiliaceae Grewia tiliaefolia Tree Tada Leaf paste Fracture: Root bark paste is applied as plaster on dislocated joints of cattle.
13 Zygophyllaceae Tribulus terrestris Herb Palleru Whole plant Jaundice: Equal quantities of whole plant Amaranthus tricolor with Tribulus terrestris  are made into paste.  Two spoonfuls of this paste mixed with cow
milk is given on empty stomach for about 7 days.
14 Rutaceae Aegle marmelos Tree Maredu Leaf paste,Fruit
pulp
Diabetes: About 10ml of leaf juice is given with 5 Piper nigrum seeds twice a day for two months
Chloroxylon swetenia Tree Billudu chettu Stem Bark Impotency: Root bark extract mixed with goat’s milk and administered two spoonfuls twice a day for 15 days.
Murraya paniculata Shrub Kondakarivepaku Root Anaemia: The roots mixed with the roots of Toddalia asiatica and grounded to paste and a spoonful of paste is given along with ghee daily for a week.
Naringi crenulata Tree Torrivelaga Stem Bark Dysentery: Stem bark crushed with the bark of Strychnos potatorum and
the extract is mixed with a pinch of salt and is administered in the doses of 2 spoonfuls twice a day for 5 days.
15 Simaroubaceae Ailanthes excelsa Tree Peddamanu Stem Bark Asthma: 30-50ml of bark infusion is administered orally twice daily till cure.
16 Burseraceae Garuga pinnata Tree Garuga Stem Bark Stomachache: Stem bark along with the roots of Tridax procumbens  and the bark of Butea monosperma and Pterocarpus marsupium taken equal proportions and extract is prepared 10 ml of this extract is given twice a day for 1 day.
17 Meliaceae Azadirachta indica Tree Vepa Stem Bark Amoebic Dysentery: Stem bark gum mixed with seeds of Ocimum basilicum
is dried and powdered. It is made in decoction. A spoonful decoction is administered daily twice for 3days..
Cipadessa baccifera Shrub Paladonda Leaf Chickenpox: Leaf juice along with turmeric powder applied externally for the treatment of chickenpox.
Soymida febrifuga Tree Soymida Root Dysmenorrhoea: Roots along with Piper nigrum and cow milk are  pound to
paste and is administered in doses of 2 spoonfuls per a day for 3days.
18 Celastraceae Celastrus
paniculatus
Climber Jyothismathi Root Bark Leucorrhoea: Root bark ground with black pepper grains, 3 ml of extract
taken orally once a day for about 2 weeks.
19 Rhamnaceae Ziziphus mauritiana Shrub Reni Leaves Body pains:A decoction is made with leaves and bark and is used to take both to treat severe body pains
Ziziphus oenoplia Climber Parimakampa Stem Bark Diarrhoea: Pound the stem bark  and make pills with the size of 1gm each.  1 pill is given orally thrice in aday for three days.
20 Vitaceae Ampelocissus
latifolia
Climber Adavi Draksha Stem Bark Fever: 5 gms stem bark powder is mixed with water and given orally thrice
in a day for 2-3 days
Cissus quadrangularis Climber Nalleru Stem,Leave s Fever: Tenders stems and leaves crushed and the extract  mixed  with breast milk is administered in doses of half spoonful once a day for 3days to infants.
21 Sapindaceae Cardiospermum
helicacabum
Climber Buddakakara Leaves Burns: Leaf paste along with oil of Ricinus communis is applied over the
affected parts.
Sapindus
emarginatus
Tree Kunkudu Leaves Cooling affect:   Leaves are  made into  paste and  the paste is applied  over
the head.
Schleichera oleosa Tree Pusika chettu Stem Bark Rheumatoid Arthritis: Stem bark along with those of Mangifera indica and Tamarindus indica and seeds of black horse gram (20 g each) are crushed, boiled in 500 ml of water till it is reduced to 100 ml. 1 cup of this decoction is taken daily once for 4 days. Bark is powdered, mixed with water and boiled in earthen pot. The decoction thus obtained is massaged lukewarm on the affected part thrice daily for 4 days.  Seed oil is massaged over the
affected area till cure.
22 Anacardiaceae Buchanania lanzan Tree Sarapappu,Muralig
injalu
Stem bark Diarrhoea: Stem bark  powdered  with  stem bark  of Syzygium  cumini  one
spoonful of this powder is administered twice a day for 3days.
Lannea coromandelica Tree Gumpini Stem Bark Gastric trouble: 1 spoonful of stem bark decoction administered twice a  day till cure.
Mangifera indica Tree Mamidi Stem Bark Fluent talk:   Stem bark pound with the root bark of Cleistanthus collinus
and tuber of Momordica dioica  The paste is used for fluent talk in children.
Semecarpus anacardium Tree Nallajeedi Seeds Abdominal Swelling: Seeds ground with onion and the paste is applied over the affected area.
23 Fabaceae Abrus precatorius Climber Guruvinda Seeds Abortion:  2  or  3 seeds  are  ground  and the  paste is mixed  in  a  glass   of
water.  This is administered once a day before breakfast for 3days.
Butea monosperma Tree Chettumoduga Bark Post natal Care: Gum is extracted from the bark is fried with ghee and is
administered twice a day for 15 days.
Butea superba Climber Teegamoduga Stem bark Haematuria:   Stem   bark   is   made   into   paste.   2   spoonfuls   paste   is
administered on empty stomach once a day for 3days.
Dalbergia latifolia Tree Pachari Stem Bark Fever:  2  spoonfuls  of stem  bark  extract  is administered  twice  a  day for
three days.
Desmodium
gangeticum
Herb Kolapanna Leaves Boils  and  Blisters:   leaves  ground  with  a  pinch  of  salt  and  the  paste is
applied on the affected areas till cure.
Desmodium pulchellum Shrub Karra Anthina Root Epilepsy: roots are ground with garlic cloves and the paste is made into pills of  Bengal gram  seed  size  and  the pills are administered  in doses of three
pills twice a day for about 30 days.
Mucuna pruriens Climber Dulagondi Root Dysmenorrhoea: Roots are ground to paste along with roots of Azadirachta indica, stem barks of Chloroxylum swietenia and Holoptelia integrifolia. The paste along with cow milk is administered in the doses of 1 spoonful per
day for 5 days.
Pongamia pinnata Tree Kanuga Stem bark Peripheral Neuritis: Stem bark ground with the stem barks of Barringtonia acutangula, Calotropis gigantia, Casearia elliptica and rots of Aristida funiculat are made into pills. 2 pills per day are given for 1 week.
Pterocarpus marsupium Tree Yegisha Stem Bark Conception: 10g of stem bark ground with that of Mitragyna parvvifolia
and the paste made into pea nut seed size pills.  21 pills are administered
orally once a day for 7 days.
Pueraria tuberosa Climber Nelagummadi Tubers Peptic Ulcers: Tuber extract mixed with little sugar and administered in doses of 2 spoonfuls twice a day till cure.
Tephrosia purpurea Herb Vempalli Root bark Paralysis: 1 Spoonful of dried root powder mixed with that of Cassia occidentalis ground with jaggery is administered once a day for 45 days.
24 Caesalpiniaceae Bauhinia racemosa Tree Arechettu Root bark Diarrhoea:  Five spoonfuls of the root bark extract is administered twice a
day for 5 days.
Bauhinia vahlii Climber Addakulu Root bark Dysentery: 5 spoonfuls of root extract along with half cup of curd is administered twice a day for 3days.
Caesalpinia bonduc Shrub Gachakayalu Leaves Black Quarter Disease  in Cattle: The  leaves boiled alongwith the leaves of
Vitex   negundo,   Cassia   occidentalis,   Tinospora   cordifolia   and   Pupalia
lappacea and the extract given orally to cattle.
Cassia auriculata Shrub Tangedu Leaves Burns: leaves burnt with the feathers of Peacock, and the ash mixed with coconut oil applied on burns.
Cassia fistula Tree Rellachettu Stem bark Chest pain: The stem bark extract mixed with the seed oil of Schleichera oleosa 2 spoonfuls of this extract administered once a day for 3days.
Cassia occidentalis Herb Kasitha Root Anthelmentic: 2 Spoonfuls of root extract mixed with a pinch of salt and administered thrice a day for 4 days.
Tamarindus indica Tree Chintachettu Fruits Backache, Menorrhagia & Weakness: 10 ml of fruit extract mixed with old jaggery in 1:2 ratio is administered twice a day for 7 days.
25 Mimosaceae Acacia chundra Tree Sandra Stem Whooping Cough: 10g of stem sap with 2 spoonfuls of mother’s milk is administered to children twice a day till cure.
Acacia leucophloea Tree Tella tumma Stem Bark Burns:  Take 20 gms stem bark powder and apply on burns along with oil.
Dichrostachys cinerea Tree Veluturuchettu Stem Bark Paralysis: 10 gms stem bark extract of Dichrostachys cinerea and Abutilon indicum in water is given orally once in a day for week.
Entada pursaetha Climber Peddagacha Seeds Rheumatism: Seed  coat  made  into  paste  and  applied  externally  on  the
affected parts till cure.
Mimosa pudica Herb Attipatti Root Epilepsy: The roots ground with the roots of Mundulea sericea and Mucuna puriens and the powder is mixed with water and is given orally in the doses of 2 spoonfuls for every 15 minutes about 2 times.
Xylia xylocarpa Tree Kondaptangedu Root bark Gonorrhoea: 2 spoonfuls of root bark extract is administered orally twice  a
day for 15 days.
26 Combretaceae Anogeissus acuminata Tree Pachichettu Stem bark Dysentery: Stem bark ground with Pithecellobium dulce and paste is made into pills. 3 pills twice are given twice a day for 3 days.
Anogeissus latifolia Tree Sirimanu Seeds Snake  Bite: Seed paste along with  water  is  administered  orally  and  also
applied externally
Calycopteris
floribunda
Climber Bontha teega Leaves Fever:  Leaves  are  ground  to  make  a  fine  paste  and  administered  with
butter to cure malarial fever.
Terminalia alata Tree Nallamaddi Roots Fever:  Roots  are  collected  in  the  early  morning  and  tied  to  the    cure
intermittent fever
Terminalia arjuna Tree Tellamaddi,Yeruma ddi Stem bark Heart problems: A tonic is prepared from the bark of the tree for heart problem.
Terminalia bellerica Tree Tani Fruits Asthma: Fruits are ground to power with the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Balanites aegyptiaca; roots of Aristolochia indica, Rauvolfia serpentina and Syzygium  aromaticum.   1  spoonful  of  powder  along  with  honey is given
thrice a day for 30 days.
Terminalia chebula Tree Karakaya Stem bark Fish Poison: Crushed stem bark and fruits is administered orally in doses  of 2 spoonfuls
27 Barringtoniaceae Baringtonia
acutangula
Tree Kanapa Leaves Head ache:  Leaves made into paste and applied on forehead.
28 Melastomaceae Memecylon
umbellatum
Tree Alli chettu. Root bark Leucorrhoea:  2 spoonfuls of extract of root bark decoction  is administered
twice a day till cure.
29 Lythraceae Lagerstroemia parviflora Tree Chennagi Leaves Dysentery: Tender leaves are ground into paste with pepper grains. This paste in doses of two spoonfuls is administered once a day for 5 days.
Woodfordia fruticosa Shrub Arepuvvu,Pittachet tu Flowers Diarrhoea: Dried flower powder is mixed with warm water and is given in doses of two spoonfuls per a day for 3days.
30 Cucurbitaceae Coccinia grandis Climber Kakidonda Leaf wounds: Leaf juice is applied on the wounds
Diplocyclos
palmatus
Climber Lingadonda Leaves Fertility: 10ml of leaf decoction administered once a day to induce menses
in girls for fertility.
31 Apiaceae Centella asiatica Herb Saraswthiaku Leaves Anaemia: Shade dried leaves powder with powder of pepper seeds is given in the dosages of 3 spoonfuls of powder with glass of milk early in the
morning for 30 days.
32 Alangiaceae Alangium salvifoium Tree Udugachettu Stem bark Paralysis: Stem bark ground to past with Piper nigrum and the past is administered two spoonfuls per day for 7 days.
33 Rubiaceae Canthium
parviflorum
Shrub Balusu Leaves Constipation: Boiled leaves are made into paste and given orally thrice a
day for 2 days ays.
Gardenia
gummifera
Tree Nallaika Roots Head  ache:    Roots  are  rubbed  on  stone    with  coconut  oil  and  extract
applied on the head
Haldinia cordifolia Tree Kambamanu Stem bark Leucorrhoea: stem bark mixed with that of Sterculia urens, ground, boiled with  Piper  nigrum,  decoction  given  orally  for  9  days.   Salt  and  oil food
prohibited during treatment.
Ixora pavetta Shrub Korivichettu Stem bark Jaundice: 2 spoonfuls of stem bark extract is administered twice a day for 9
days.
Pavetta indica Shrub Papidi Leaves Blisters:  warm leaf paste applied over the affected parts.
Tarenna asiatica Shrub Pedda papidi Stem bark Dysentery: Stem bark crushed with that of Jatropha curcas, 2 spoonfuls of the extract is administered thrice a day for 3days.
34 Asteraceae Emilia sonchifolia Herb Pisapatri Stem bark Night Blindness: 10 ml stem bark juice is giveninternally to cure blind ness.
Tridax procumbens Herb Gaddichamanthi Plant Jaundice:   Plant   paste   with   jaggery   is   administered   in   doses  of two
spoonfuls per day for 7 days.
Vernonia cinerea Herb Garitikamma Seeds Leucoderma: A spoonful of seed powder mixed with 2 black pepper fruits is administered once a day for 30 days.
Xanthium strumarium Herb Marulamathangi Roots Boils: 3ml of root extract is administered once a day for 2 days ays.
35 Sapotaceae Madhuca longifolia Tree Vippachettu Roots Stomach pain: Roots crushed to paste along with the roots of Aristolochia indica, Holarrhena pubescens and Rauvolfia serpentina  is made into pills. 2
pills per day is administered till cure.
Manilkara hexandra Tree Palachettu Stem bark Body pains: Stem bark with black pepper grain is crushed 2 spoonfuls of the extract is mixed with jaggery and milk and administered twice a day till
cure.
36 Ebanaceae Diospyros
chloroxylon
Tree Ullinda Leaves Diarrhoea: Two spoonfuls of leaf juice is given twice a day for 3days.
Diospyros
melanoxylon
Tree Tunika Leaves Diarrhoea:  Two spoonfuls of tender leaf juice is administered thrice a day
for 5 days.
37 Oleaceae Nyctanthes arbortristis Tree Parijatham Leaves Malaria: Decoction of the leaves with black pepper fruits, ginger and pinch of salt is made into a paste and is administered thrice a day for 3days.
38 Apocynaceae Alstonia venenata Tree Eduakulapala Stem bark Anthelmintic: Stem bark along with Piper longum is made into an extract and is administered in doses of 5 spoonfuls twice a day for 3days.
Holarrhena
pubescens
Shrub Peddapala Stem bark Asthma: One teaspoonful of bark powder is given orally till cure.
Ichnocarpus frutescens Climber Nallateega Root Haemorrhage: Root crushed with Cuminum cyminum and Trachyspermum roxburghianum seeds and the paste with lemon juice is administered once
a day for 9 days.
Rauvolfia serpentina Herb Sarpagandhi Root Heart Pain: Roots crushed to paste with the roots of Alstonia scholaris, 2 spoonfuls of the paste is administered once a day for 5 days.
Rauvolfia
tetraphylla
Shrub Patalagaruda Root bark Blood Pressure: 6ml decoction of root bark is administered once a day for 7
days.
Wrightia arborea Tree Kodisapala Bark Snakebite: Latex, and the bark fiber tide above the bitten spot.
Wrightia tinctorea Tree Kodisapala Bark Obesity:  Bark along  with  Cuminum cyminum  and garlic is used  to  reduce
weight.
39 Asclepiadaceae Calotropis gigantea Shrub Jilledu Root Leucorrhoea: Root decoction with paste of long peppers (3:1) is taken orally.
Gymnema sylvestre Climber Podapatri Root Cobrabite: Root pounded with roots of Aristolochia India and Rhinacanthus nasuta.   The paste along  with  infant’s urine administered  immediately for
cobra bite.
Pergularia daemia Climber Dustaputeega Leaves Bone Fracture: Leaves ground with that of Plumbago zeylanica and the aerial roots of Vanda tessellate, and the paste plastered over fractured bones.
Tylophora indica Climber Kukkavaminta Leaves Asthma: One tender leaf with 3 black pepper fruits is chewed on empty stomach once a day for 30 days.
Wattakaka volubilis Climber Bundiguruja Leaves Inflammation: Gently warmed leaves measered with sesamum oil are tied
to the part of inflammation.
Cryptolepis
buchanani
Climber Adavipalateega Leaves Galactagogue:   200g of leaf paste is administered once a day  for 7-10 days
to increase lactation
Hemidesmus indicus Climber Sugandapala Root Herpes: Root ground to paste with the roots of Aristolochia indica and tubers of Cyperus rotundus and paste is applied on infected parts.
40 Loganiaceae Strychnos nux- vomica Tree Musti Stem bark Asthma: Stem bark is crushed with black pepper and this decoction is administered in doses of 2-3 spoonfuls twice a day for 45 days.
Strychnos potatorum Tree Chillaginjalu Seeds Blood  Pressure:      Seed  paste  mixed   with   root   paste  of  Abelmoschus ficulneus and Cuminum cyminum seeds is administered orally for 5 days.
41 Boraginaceae Coldenia
procumbens
Herb Hamsapadu Whole
plant
Eczema: Plant paste along with  that  of Eclipta  prostrata  is  applied on the
effected parts till cure.
Cordia dichotama Tree Iriki Stembark Diarrhoea: 10 ml stem bark decoction is given twice in a day  4-6 days
42 Convolvulaceae Argyreia nervosa Climber Samudrapala Roots Rheumatoid Arthritis: A paste of roots made with rice water is applied over the swollen part till cure.
Evolvulus alsinoides Herb Vishnukranthi Leaves Jaundice: 2 spoonfuls of leaf paste is mixed with onion bulb paste is administered twice a day for 7 days.
Evolvulus nummularius Herb Whole plant Fever: Plant crushed with few seeds of Trachyspermum ammi. 1 spoonful of extract is administered twice a day for 3days.
43 Cuscutaceae Cuscuta reflexa Herb Pasiteega Whole plant Epilepsy: One spoonful of decoction of the young plant with honey is administered once a day for 7 days.
44 Solanaceae Datura metel Herb Ummetta Root Rheumatoid Arthritis: Root crushed with that of Dioscorea bulbifera 2 inches each and the extract is administered twice a day for 5 days.
Physalis minima Herb Budda dusara Leaf Ear diseases: 2-3 drops of leaf juice is dropped in the ear.
Solanum nigrum Herb Kamanchi Whole plant Swellings: About 250 g of the whole plant (except root) is eaten as a vegetable once a day for 5 days.
Solanum surettens Herb Mullavanga Seed Toothache: Seeds are powdered and mixed with turmeric powder and is applied over gums and in between the teeth.
45 Scrophulariaceae Scoparia dulcis Herb Goatweed Leaf,Root Dysentery: Leaf/root  extract  mildly heated and administered in doses of 3
spoonfuls twice a day for 3days.
46 Bignoniaceae Oroxylon indicum Tree Pampinichettu Root
bark,Seeds
Antifertility:   Root   bark   or   seeds   ground   with   roots   of   Spermacoce
articularis and  the intestine of mangoose and  the paste made into  pills.  1 pill is administered after menstruation.
47 Pedaliaceae Pedalium murex Herb Enugupalleru Leaves Dysmenorrhoea: Leaves mixed with garlic cloves and black pepper fruits are made  into  paste.   The paste is administered  in  doses  of  2  spoonfuls
once a day during menstrual period for 4 days.
48 Martyniaceae Martynia annua Shrub Gaddagoru Root Bronchitis:  3 spoonfuls of root decoction administered orally twice a day
for 4 days.
49 Acanthaceae Adhathoda zeylanica Shrub Addasaram Leaves Asthma: Leaves are groung to make paste and it is mixed with waterand orally once a day for 4-5 days .
Andrographis paniculata Herb Nelavemu Stem Asthma: Stem is mixed with that of Gymnema sylvestre and Justicia adhatoda leaves, ground and the infusion is given orally till cure.
50 Verbenaceae Clerodendrum serratum Shrub Chiruteku Root Analgesic: 100 g root in one liter of water is boiled down to half one. This decoction in one glassful administered twice a day for 7 days.
Gmelina arborea Tree Gummaditeku Stem bark Chest pain: stem bark ground with that of Streblus asper, Careya arborea
and   Piper   nigrum   and   the   paste   made  into   pills,  one  pill   a   day  is
administered for 30 days.
Gmelina asiatica Shrub Sallagummadu Fruit Dandruff: The ripe fruit paste applied to scalp 1 hour before bath for 4 weeks.
Lantana camara Shrub Akshintalu pulu Tender shoots Rheumatoid Arthritis: 3 teaspoons of tender shoot decoction is administered daily once for a 30 days
Phyla nodiflora Herb Bokkinagu Whole
plant
Stomachache: 50 ml whole plant juice is administred orally
Vitex negundo Shrub Vavila Leaves Body Swelling: Leaf paste made into peanut sized pills, 2 pills are administered orally twice a day till cure.
51 Lamiaceae Hyptis sauveolens Shrub Sirnatulasi Root Fever:  5ml of root decoction is administered twice a day for 3days.
Ocimum americanum Herb Kukkatulasi Leaves Fits: The leaves of this plant along with black pepper fruits and garlic cloves are crushed into a paste and the paste is given in doses of 2 spoonfuls twice
a day for 15 days.
52 Nyctaginaceae Boerhaavia diffusa Herb Atikamamidi Whole plant HIV: Whole plant of this along with Centella asiatica and Piper longum are mixed in 5:3:2 proportion and ground into paste. The extract thus obtained is  administered  in  doses of  2  spoonfuls  twice  a  day.   This  increases the
haemoglobin content, disease resistance and weight also.
53 Amaranthaceae Achyranthes aspera Herb Uttareni Seeds Antidote to Animal Bite: 3 spoonfuls of seed paste mixed in a glass of hot water is administered twice a day as an antidote for bite of any poisonous animal.
Aerva lanata Herb Kondapindikura Whole
plant
Leucorrhoea:   4  spoonfuls  of  whole  plant  juice   mxed   with   a  pinch  of
camphor is administered daily twice for 5 days.
54 Aristolochiaceae Aristalochia indica Climber Nallaeswari Roots Diarrhoea: Roots ground with the roots of Holarrhena pubescens, Madhuca longifolia,  Orthospihon  rubicundus  and  caraway  seeds.  The  paste  with
water is administered for 5 days.
55 Loranthaceae Dendrophthoe
falcata
Parasites Badanika Stem Bark Asthma: 10-12 g of stem bark powder is administered daily twice for 3days.
56 Euphorbiaceae Acalypha indica Herb Muripindi Leaves Jaundice: leaves with leaves of Justicia adhatoda, Eclipta prostrata, Centella asiatica, Phyllanthus amarus, Coccinea indica, and Momordica charantia are taken in equal quantities and ground and made into pills of soapnut seed size.   One pill is administered with rice cunjee or butter milk twice a
day for 3days.
Baliospermum montanum Herb Kondaamudam Roots Stomach ache: The roots are crushed with jaggery and the filtrate is taken orally twice a day for 2 days ays.
Bridelia retusa Tree Anemchettu Stem bark Chest pain: Stem bark crushed with that of Butea superba and Lannea coromandelica and the filtrate administered in doses of 1 spoonful twice a
day for 3days.
Cleistanthus collinus Tree Kodisa Stem bark Suicide: Stem bark or fruits crushed in goat’s milk and the extract taken orally for committing suicide.
Euphorbia hirta Herb Pachabotlu Leaves Dysentery: 3  spoonfuls  of leaf extract  mixed  with  sugar  is   administered
twice a day for 7 days.
Mallotus
philippensis
Tree Sinduram Fruit Anthelmintic: Fruit is made into powder and powder is used for powerful
Anthelmintic.
Phyllanthus amarus Herb Nelausiri Leaves Scalp infection: The leaves pound with the roots of Andrographis  paniculata and the paste is applied over the scalp.
Phyllanthus emblica Tree Usiri Stem Bone Fracture: Stem galls ground with leaves of Vanda tessellate and the paste plastered over fractured bones.
57 Ulmaceae Holoptelea
integrifolia
Tree Nemali chettu Leaves Blisters: Leaf made into paste and is applied on the affected parts.
Trema orientalis Tree Bogguchettu Root bark Epilepsy: 3 spoonfuls of root bark extract is administered twice a day for 20
days.
58 Moraceae Ficus benghalensis Tree Marrichettu Fruit Boils: Latex is applied on the affected parts.
Ficus religiosa Tree Ravichettu Stem bark Diarrhoea: 2 spoonfuls of stem bark  extract  is taken  orally  once a  day for
3days.
Sterblus aspera Tree Barnika Roots Rheumatiod Arthritis: Dried roots pounded with the dried roots of Holarrhena pubescens and Piper longum. This powder is mixed with water and boiled along with a bit of earthen pot.  This extract is taken orally till
cure.
59 Orchidaceae Vanda tessellata Epiphytes Vadanika Roots Fractures: Aerial roots are pounded to paste with the stem of Viscum articulatum, stem bark of Litsea glutinosa, tubers of Dioscorea oppositifolia and Dioscorea pentaphylla. The paste along with gingelly oil and blood of black hen is made in to pills, one pill is administered orally once a day for 9
days.
60 Costaceae Costus speciosus Herb Bokachikadumpa Rhizome Abortion:  10g of Rhizome paste is administered twice a day for 5 to 7 days.
61 Hypoxidaceae Curculigo
orchiolides
Herb Nelatadi Root Cuts: Roots are made into paste, and the paste is applied on the affected
area till cure.
62 Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea bulbifera Climber Adavidumpa Tubers Sterility: Tuber paste is used orally from the 4th day of menstruation for a period of 21 days to attain sterility.
Dioscorea oppositifolia Climber Tellagadda Tubers Fractures: Tubers ground to paste along with tubers of Dioscorea pentaphylla, stem bark of Litsea glutinosa, aerial root tubers of Vanda tessellata and ste of Viscum articulatum. The paste along with gingerly oil and blood of black hen is made into pills.  Two pills are given twice a day for
30 days.
Dioscorea
pentaphylla
Climber Adaviginusateega Tubers Rheumatoid  Arthritis: Tuber  paste is applied  externally  over the affected
area till cure.
63 Liliaceae Asparagus racemosus Climber Sathavari Roots Diabetes: These tuberous roots with tuberous roots of Mirabilis Jalapa, Boerhavia chinesis and roots of Plumbago auriculata are taken in equal quantities and soaked in lime water for 2 days, dreid and powdered. 2 spoonfuls of powder mixed in a glass of cow milk is administered daily twice for 3days.
64 Arecaceae Borassus flabellifer Tree Tadichettu Stem Muscle Pain: Stem peelings crushed with root bark of Alangium salvifolium
and the filtrate mixed with sugar, two spoonfuls of the mixture is a administered twice a day for 3days
Caryota urens Tree Jilugu Nuts Dandruff: Nut powder made into paste applied to the head and bath is taken after one hour for twice a week.
Cyperus rotundus Herb Tungagaddi Tubers Diarrhoea: Three or Four of tuberous underground stolons are crushed and the extract along with few drops of honey is taken orally for about 3days.
65 Poaceae Bambusa
arundinacea
Shrub Veduru Stem,leaves Blood Purifier: 5 ml of stem and leaf extract is administered twice a day for
7 days.
Cynodon dactylon Herb Garikagaddi Leaves Dysuria: 10 Leaves are pestled with 7 leaves of Zizyphus mauritiana and 7 grains of raw rice and a mixture is prepared by adding 150 ml of water to it.
This is taken once in a day for about 10 days.
Dendrocalamus strictus   Shrub   Sadanapuveduru   Leaves Abortion: Tender leaves crushed along with seeds of Hibiscus cannabinus 5 spoonfuls of this extract is given orally twice a day for 5 days (Pregnancy
upto 3 months).
Saccharum
spantaneum
Herb Rellagaddi Root Eruptions on the Skin: 20 ml root decoction is given orally once a day for 5
days.
Vetiveria zizanoides Herb Vattiveru Root Allergy: Roots ground with that of Achyranthes aspera in doses of 10g in one glass of water once a day for 3days.

CONCLUSIONS

This forest region is good resource and wealth for various flora and fauna because of several bioactive compounds are being extracted from traditional medicinal plants. There is a need to create and maintain a database on traditional botanical knowledge of the local inhabitants which helps to conserve the native phytodiversity. Due to anthropogenic activities, density as well as canopy of the forest was reduced knowingly or unknowingly. The present study alarming that, it is a high time to have a look on its conservation and management strategies to protect our heritage and forest wealth. So Government and Non Government organizations should involve in the conservation measures to maintain its glory forever which helps in developing novel drugs to treat ailments.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors are grateful to the ethnic groups Papikondalu wild life sanctuary area for providing valuable information, forest officials for their support in the deep forest areas.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

I have read and understood AJETHNO policy on declaration of interests and declare that I have no competing interests.

FUNDING SUPPORT

Kovel foundation supported financially for the conduct of the research in the deep forests.

REFERENCES

  1. Ratnaraju,Y. Yugandhar, P and Savithramma, N (2014) Documentation of Ethnomedicinal Knowledge of hilly tract areas of East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh,  India,  International  Journal  of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical sciences Vol (6) Issue-4.
  2. Aruneekumar & Niteswar K, 1990 Medicinal plants of Kakinada (East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh). Indian Medicine Vol (2) pp 229 -232.
  3. Sankara Rao, B., Sarada Mani, N., Sujatha, B., Sharmila Polumahanthi,. 2015. Ethnobotanical investigation of underground Plant Parts of Kotia Hills of Vizianagaram District, Andhra Pradesh, India, Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies. Vol (3) pp 140- 142.
  4. Siva Kumari, B., Prabhu Y.T., Tambur Pavani., (2014). Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used to cure respiratory diseases in Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies: Vol (2) pp 34-37.
  5. Ramakrishna, N. Varma, Y.N.R, and Saidulu, Ch.( 2014) Ethnobotanical studies of Adilabad district Andhra Pradesh, India Journal of Pharmacognasy and Phytochemistry, Vol (3) pp18-36
  6. Aniel kumar.O, Mallikarjuna,K. Raju.P.R. Krishna Rao.M and Mutyalanaidu M 2015 Ethnobotanical studies for Skin diseases by tribes of Papikondalu forest, Andhra Pradesh, India International Journal of Advanced Research in Science and Technology. Vol (4) pp 416-420.
  7. Shanmukha Rao,V., Srinivasa Rao.D, Venkaiah .M and Venkateswara Rao.Y (2014) Ethnobotanical studies of some selected medicinal plants of Pathapatnam Mandalam, Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh, India, Journal of Plant sciences. Vol(4) pp 22-33.
  8. Srinivasa Rao.D, Bhaskara Rao, M Prayaga Murthy.P and Venkaiah M ethnobotanical uses of certain plant species from Makkuva Mandalam, Vizianagaram District Andhra Pradesh, India International Journal of Current Research. Vol (6) pp 5387-5390.
  9. Srinivasa Rao.D, Shanmukha Rao, V.Prayaga Murthy.P, G.M.Narasimha Rao and Venkateswara Rao,Y (2015) Some Ethnomedicinal Plants of Parnasala sacred grove area Eastern Ghats of Khammam District, Telangana ,India. Vol.(7) pp 210- 218.
  10. Murthy, E.N., 2012. Ethno medicinal plants used by gonds of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Int. J. of Pharm. & Life Sci. (IJPLS), Vol (3) pp 2034-2043.
  11. Omkar Kanneboyena., Sateesh Suthari and Vatsavaya S. Raju., 2015. Ethnomedicinal Knowledge of Inhabitants from Gundlabrahmeswaram Wildlife Sanctuary (Eastern Ghats), Andhra Pradesh, India. American Journal of Ethnomedicine, Vol (2) pp 333-346.
  12. Prayaga Murthy,P. Srinivasa Rao.D and Venkaiah M(2012) Study of Some Ethnomedicinal Plants for treatment of dysentery if North coastal Andhra Pradesh, India International Journal of Bioscience. Vol (12) pp 18-24.
  13. Padal S.B, Prayaga Murthy, P.Srinivasa Rao.D and Venkaiah,M (2010) Ethno botanical Plants from Paderu division of Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India Journal of Phytology. Vol (2) pp 70- 91
  14. Ramana Naidu, B.V., Haribabu Rao, D., Subramanyam, P., Prabhakar Raju, C., Jayasimha Rayalu., D. 2012. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribals in nallamalla forest area of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh. International Journal Of Plant, Animal And Environmental Sciences. Vol (2) pp 72-81.   .
  15. Gamble J.S. and C.E.C. Fischer, 1915-1935. Flora of the Presidency of Madras,(3vols.). (Rep.Ed.1957),  Adlard     and  Son  Ltd., London.
  16. Rajagopal Reddy, S., Madhusudhana Reddy, A., and M. V .Suresh Babu., 2015. Traditional Medicinal Plants of Lankamalleswara Wildlife Sanctuary, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India. American Journal of Ethnomedicine, Vol (2) pp 379-391.
  17. Pullaiah, T, and E. Chennaiah, 1997. Flora of Andhra Pradesh. Vol.1. Scientific Publishers Jodhpur.
  18. Pullaiah, T, and D. Ali Moulali, 1997. Flora of Andhra Pradesh, Vol.2.Scientific Publishers Jodhpur.
  19. Pullaiah, T, 1997. Flora of Andhra Pradesh, Vol.3. Scientific Publishers, New Delhi.
  20. Reddy, R.D., M.K.Prasad and K.Venkaiah, 1991. Forest Flora of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad.
  21. Devarinti srihari reddy, 2012, Ethnomedicinal plants used by the tribals of achampet forest division in Nallamalais, Telangana, India. International Journal Of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences. 2, 72-81.
  22. Rakesh Samar, P,. Shrivastava., N and Manju Jain. 2015. Ethnobotanical Study of Traditional Medicinal Plants Used By Tribe of Guna District, Madhya Pradesh, India. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci 4: 466-471.
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Viewing options

Post your comment

Share This Article

Flyer image
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh