Successful development of aquaculture was largely determined by the seed supply of both the quality and quantity of the seed. Seed quality was influenced by the quality of the genetic factors and environmental factors i.e. water quality, food, and disease. Improved parent quality through the improvement of both qualitative and quantitative genetic traits that could be done through the selection of traits or characteristics of prospective mothers, as well as avoiding the occurrence of inbreeding that causes heritabilities decline. The purpose of writing to review the results of genetic studies that have been applied in the field of aquaculture in Indonesia. In this article, the study included the following: basic genetic concepts and theories, genetic research methods, and their roles and functions in the field of aquaculture.