Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) is a gradual decrease in kidney function over time. End stage renal disease is the last stage chronic kidney disease.There are five different stages in CKD and symptoms include shortness of breath, faint, dizzy, swelling in hands or feet, upset stomach, nausea, vomiting and brown, red, or purple urination. Chronic kidney disease is identified by a blood test for creatinine and urinalysis shows the kidney is allowing the loss of protein or red blood cells into the urine.

Related Journals: Annals of Clinical Nephrology, Journal of Kidney, Journal of Clinical & Experimental Nephrology

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