Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. It is a branch of biology that deals with the anatomy, biochemistry, molecular biology, and physiology of neurons and neural circuits. It also draws upon other fields, with the most obvious being pharmacology, psychology, and medicine.
The scope of neuroscience has broadened over time to include different approaches used to study the molecular, cellular, developmental, structural, functional, evolutionary, computational, psychosocial and medical aspects of the nervous system. Neuroscience has also given rise to such other disciplines as neuroeducation, neuroethics, and neurolaw.
The major branches of modern neuroscience Affective neuroscience, Behavioral neuroscience, Cellular neuroscience, Clinical neuroscience, Cognitive neuroscience, Computational neuroscience, Cultural neuroscience, Developmental neuroscience, Molecular neuroscience, Neuroengineering, Neuroimaging, Neuroinformatics, Neurolinguistics, Neurophysiology, Paleoneurology, Social neuroscience, Systems neuroscience
The history of neuroscience that includes, the ancient Egyptians thought the seat of intelligence was in the heart. Because of this belief, during the mummification process, they would remove the brain but leave the heart in the body.
The earliest writings on the brain were found in the 1700 BC Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus. The word "brain" is mentioned eight times when describing the symptoms, diagnosis, and likely outcomes of two people who had head wounds - compound fractures of the skull.
Behavioral Neurological Science is a subspecialty of neurology that studies the neurological basis of behavior, memory, and cognition, the impact of neurological damage and disease upon these functions, and the treatment thereof. Two fields associated with behavioral neurology are neuropsychiatry and neuropsychology.
Behavioral Neurological Science is defined as a medical subspecialty committed to better understanding links between neuroscience and behavior, and to the care of individuals with neurologically based behavioral disturbances. Behavioral Neurology, formerly Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, provides a focused forum for the discussion of scientific approaches to the neurobiology of abnormal behaviors.
Historically, the principal emphasis of Behavioral Neurology has been to characterize the phenomenology and pathophysiology of intellectual disturbances in relation to brain dysfunction, clinical diagnosis, and treatment.
Behavioral Neurology encompasses three general types of clinical syndromes: 1) diffuse and multifocal brain disorders affecting cognition and behavior (e.g. delirium and dementia), 2) neurobehavioral syndromes associated with focal brain lesions (e.g. aphasia, amnesia, agnosia, apraxia), and 3) neuropsychiatric manifestations of neurological disorders (e.g. depression, mania, psychoses, anxiety, personality changes, or obsessive-compulsive disorders, which may accompany diseases such as epilepsy, cerebrovascular disease, traumatic brain injury, or multiple sclerosis). These syndromic categories may be etiologically subdivided into either primary (e.g: neurodegenerative) and secondary (e.g. systemic toxic-metabolic) brain disorders, or on the basis of developmental, inherited, or sporadic (acquired) mode of occurrence.
Cellular Neuroscience is the study of neurons at a cellular level. This includes morphology and physiological properties of single neurons. Several techniques such as intracellular recording, patch-clamp, and voltage-clamp technique, pharmacology, confocal imaging, molecular biology, two photon laser scanning microscopy and Ca2+ imaging have been used to study activity at the cellular level. Cellular neuroscience examines the various types of neurons, the functions of different neurons, the influence of neurons upon each other, how neurons work together.
Neurons are cells that are specialized to receive, propagate, and transmit electrochemical impulses. In the human brain alone, there are over eighty billion neurons. Neurons are diverse with respect to morphology and function. Thus, not all neurons correspond to the stereotypical motor neuron with dendrites and myelinated axons that conduct action potentials. Some neurons such as photoreceptor cells, for example, do not have myelinated axons that conduct action potentials. Other unipolar neurons found in invertebrates do not even have distinguishing processes such as dendrites. Moreover, the distinctions based on function between neurons and other cells such as cardiac and muscle cells are not helpful. Thus, the fundamental difference between a neuron and a nonneuronal cell is a matter of degree.
Another major class of cells found in the nervous system are glial cells. These cells are only recently beginning to receive attention from neurobiologists for being involved not just in nourishment and support of neurons, but also in modulating synapses. For example, Schwann cells, which are a type of glial cell found in the peripheral nervous system, modulate synaptic connections between presynaptic terminals of motor neuron endplates and muscle fibres at neuromuscular junctions.
One prominent characteristic of many neurons is excitability. Neurons generate electrical impulses or changes in voltage of two types: graded potentials and action potentials. Graded potentials occur when the membrane potential depolarizes and hyperpolarizes in a graded fashion relative to the amount of stimulus that is applied to the neuron. An action potential on the other hand is an all-or-none electrical impulse. Despite being slower than graded potentials, action potentials have the advantage of traveling long distances in axons with little or no decrement.
Neurons communicate with one another via synapses. Synapses are specialized junctions between two cells in close apposition to one another. In a synapse, the neuron that sends the signal is the presynaptic neuron and the target cell receives that signal is the postsynaptic neuron or cell. Synapses can be either electrical or chemical. Electrical synapses are characterized by the formation of gap junctions that allow ions and other organic compound to instantaneously pass from one cell to another. Chemical synapses are characterized by the presynaptic release of neurotransmitters that diffuse across a synaptic cleft to bind with postsynaptic receptors. A neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger that is synthesized within neurons themselves and released by these same neurons to communicate with their postsynaptic target cells. A receptor is a trans membrane protein molecule that a neurotransmitter or drug binds. Chemical synapses are slower than electrical synapses.
The Cognitive Neuroscience is the study of higher cognitive functions that exist in humans, and their underlying neural basis. Cognitive neuroscience draws from linguistics, psychology, and cognitive science. Cognitive neuroscientists can take two broad directions: behavioral/experimental or computational/modeling, the aim being to understand the nature of cognition from a neural point of view.
Parts of the brain play an important role in this field. Neurons play the most vital role, since the main point is to establish an understanding of cognition from a neural perspective, along with the different lobes of the Cerebral cortex.
Due to its multidisciplinary nature, cognitive neuroscientists may have various backgrounds. Other than the associated disciplines just mentioned, cognitive neuroscientists may have backgrounds in neurobiology, neurophysiology, neurochemistry, bioengineering, neurology, physics, computer science, linguistics, philosophy, and mathematics.
Methods employed in cognitive neuroscience include experimental procedures from psychophysics and cognitive psychology, functional neuroimaging, electrophysiology, cognitive genomics, and behavioral genetics.
Studies of patients with cognitive deficits due to brain lesions constitute an important aspect of cognitive neuroscience. The damages in lesioned brains provide a comparable basis with regards to healthy and fully functioning brains. These damages change the neural circuits in the brain and cause it to malfunction during basic cognitive processes, such as memory or learning. With the damage, we can compare how the healthy neural circuits are functioning, and possibly draw conclusions about the basis of the affected cognitive processes.
Cognitive neuroscience is an interdisciplinary area of study that has emerged from many other fields, perhaps most significantly neuroscience, psychology, and computer science. There were several stages in these disciplines that changed the way researchers approached their investigations and that led to the field becoming fully established.
Theoretical approaches include computational neuroscience and cognitive psychology.
Neuroinformatics is a research field concerned with the organization of neuroscience data by the application of computational models and analytical tools. These areas of research are important for the integration and analysis of increasingly large-volume, high-dimensional, and fine-grain experimental data. Neuroinformaticians provide computational tools, mathematical models, and create interoperable databases for clinicians and research scientists. Neuroscience is a heterogeneous field, consisting of many and various sub-disciplines (e.g: cognitive psychology, behavioral neuroscience, and behavioral genetics). In order for our understanding of the brain to continue to deepen, it is necessary that these sub-disciplines are able to share data and findings in a meaningful way; Neuroinformaticians facilitate this.
Neuroinformatics stands at the intersection of neuroscience and information science. Other fields, like genomics, have demonstrated the effectiveness of freely distributed databases and the application of theoretical and computational models for solving complex problems. In Neuroinformatics, such facilities allow researchers to more easily quantitatively confirm their working theories by computational modeling. Additionally, neuroinformatics fosters collaborative research—an important fact that facilitates the field's interest in studying the multi-level complexity of the brain.
There are three main directions where neuroinformatics has to be applied:
The development of tools and databases for management and sharing of neuroscience data at all levels of analysis,
The development of tools for analyzing and modeling neuroscience data,
The development of computational models of the nervous system and neural processes,
In the recent decade, as vast amounts of diverse data about the brain were gathered by many research groups, the problem was raised of how to integrate the data from thousands of publications in order to enable efficient tools for further research. The biological and neuroscience data are highly interconnected and complex, and by itself, integration represents a great challenge for scientists.
Combining informatics research and brain research provides benefits for both fields of science. On one hand, informatics facilitates brain data processing and data handling, by providing new electronic and software technologies for arranging databases, modeling and communication in brain research. On the other hand, enhanced discoveries in the field of neuroscience will invoke the development of new methods in information technologies (IT).
Neurology is a branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, functions, and organic disorders of nerves and the nervous system. Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous system. The neurology is subdivided into two parts Autonomic Nervous System and the Somatic Nervous System. Neurology is the field of the neuro science, it is the scientific study of the nervous system.
A neurologist is a physician specializing in neurology and trained to investigate, or diagnose and treat neurological disorders.. The neurologist specializing also includes Clinical neurophysiology, Neuromuscular medicine, Neuroimaging, Neurorehabilitation, and Interventional neurology. behavioral neurology.
Neurology is a non-surgical specialty; its corresponding surgical specialty is Neurosurgery. A large number of neurological disorders These can affect the central nervous system the brain and spinal cord, peripheral nervous system, the autonomic nervous system and the muscular system.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. Neuroradiology plays a key role not only in diagnosis but also in the operative phase of neurosurgery. Neuroradiology methods are used in modern neurosurgery diagnosis and treatment. They include computer assisted imaging computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and stereotactic radiosurgery. Some neurosurgery procedures involve the use of intra-operative MRI and functional MRI.
General neurosurgery involves most neurosurgical conditions including neuro-trauma and other neuro-emergencies such as intracranial hemorrhage. Most level 1 hospitals have this kind of practice. Specialized branches have developed to cater to special and difficult conditions. These specialized branches co-exist with general neurosurgery in more sophisticated hospitals. To practice advanced specialization within neurosurgery, additional higher fellowship training of one to two years is expected from the neurosurgeon. Some of these divisions of neurosurgery are: 1. Vascular neurosurgery and endovascular neurosurgery 2. Stereotactic neurosurgery, functional neurosurgery, and epilepsy surgery (the latter includes partial or total corpus callosotomy – severing part or all of the corpus callosum to stop or lessen seizure spread and activity, and the surgical removal of functional, physiological and/or anatomical pieces or divisions of the brain, called epileptic foci, that are operable and that are causing seizures, and also the more radical and very, very rare partial or total lobectomy, or even hemispherectomy – the removal of part or all of one of the lobes, or one of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain; those two procedures, when possible, are also very, very rarely used in oncological neurosurgery or to treat very severe neurological trauma, such as stab or gunshot wounds to the brain) 3. Oncological neurosurgery also called neurosurgical oncology; includes pediatric oncological neurosurgery; treatment of benign and malignant central and peripheral nervous system cancers and pre-cancerous lesions in adults and children (including, among others, glioblastoma multiforme and other gliomas, brain stem cancer, astrocytoma, pontine glioma, medulloblastoma, spinal cancer, tumors of the meninges and intracranial spaces, secondary metastases to the brain, spine, and nerves, and peripheral nervous system tumors) 5. Skull base surgery 6. Spinal neurosurgery 7. Peripheral nerve surgery 8. Pediatric neurosurgery
In conventional open surgery the neurosurgeon opens the skull, creating a large opening to access the brain. Techniques involving smaller openings with the aid of microscopes and endoscopes are now being used as well. Methods that utilize small craniotomies in conjunction with high-clarity microscopic visualization of neural tissue offer excellent results. However, the open methods are still traditionally used in trauma or emergency situations.
Microsurgery is utilized in many aspects of neurological surgery. Microvascular techniques are used in EC-IC bypass surgery and in restoration carotid endarterectomy. The clipping of an aneurysm is performed under microscopic vision. minimally-invasive spine surgery utilizes microscopes or endoscopes. Procedures such as microdiscectomy, laminectomy, and artificial disc replacement rely on microsurgery.
Neurological Science Journal is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal that objectives to publish the maximum whole and dependable supply of statistics at the discoveries and present day tendencies in the mode of authentic articles, evaluate articles, case reports, brief communications, and so forth. In all areas of neuroscience and making them available online freely with none restrictions or any other subscriptions to researchers international.
The Journal is intended to be comprehensive, and its main aim is to publish all the papers of neurological science. Neurological Science Journal specializes in the topics which comes beneath the vicinity of neurological research as worried device, neurology, neuropeptides, or gastro transmitter, neurophysiology, cellular & molecular neuroscience, cognitive & behavioural neuroscience, systems neuroscience, neurodegeneration - neurodegenerative sicknesses, neurological issues, neuropsychology, neuropathology, neurosurgery, neuroimaging.
Neurological Science Journal endeavours to submit basic, essential and superior improvement research in not only above stated fields however many interrelated sides of translational neurosciences. Additionally the journal is willing to publish the studies on sensory and motor structures, neural development, circadian rhythms, neuroendocrine mechanisms and the neurobiology of reward and motivation.
Molecular and cellular Neuroscience
It observe of the apprehensive machine may be carried out at multiple ranges, ranging from the molecular and cell ranges to the structures and cognitive levels. at the molecular degree, the fundamental questions addressed in molecular neuroscience encompass the mechanisms by which neurons express and respond to molecular indicators and how axons shape complicated connectivity styles. at this level, gear from molecular biology and genetics are used to apprehend how neurons expand and the way genetic modifications have an effect on organic features.
Neural circuits and Systems
Systems neuroscience consist of how neural circuits are formed and used anatomically and physiologically to provide functions which includes reflexes, multisensory integration, motor coordination, circadian rhythms, emotional responses, mastering, and memory. in different phrases, they deal with how those neural circuits function and the mechanisms through which behaviors are generated.
Translational research and medicine
Neurology, psychiatry, neurosurgery, psychosurgery, anesthesiology and ache remedy, neuropathology, neuroradiology, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, clinical neurophysiology, addiction medicine, and sleep medication are some scientific specialties that in particular address the illnesses of the apprehensive machine. the bounds among those specialties have been blurring recently as they're all influenced with the aid of fundamental research in neuroscience. Mind imaging additionally enables objective, organic insights into intellectual illness, which could lead to faster analysis, extra correct prognosis, and help determine patient development through the years.
Affective neuroscience is the have a look at of the neural mechanisms concerned in emotion, usually via experimentation on animal fashions.
This consists of medical specialties which include neurology and psychiatry, as well as many allied health professions which includes speech-language pathology. Neurology is the scientific uniqueness that works with problems of the nervous device. Psychiatry is the scientific distinctiveness that works with the issues of the mind—which encompass numerous affective, behavioral, cognitive, and perceptual problems.
Neuroanatomy the take a look at of the anatomy and stereotyped organisation of fearful structures.heir neuroanatomy is consequently better understood. in vertebrates, the apprehensive system is segregated into the inner structure of the mind and spinal cord (together called the imperative worried gadget, or cns) and the routes of the nerves that connect with the rest of the frame (known as the peripheral frightened gadget, or pns).
Behavioral neurobiology/neuroscience is likewise referred with unique names like biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology. it can be described because the utility of the concepts of biology (mainly neurobiology) and it ambitions at the observe of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of conduct in human beings and non-human animals.
Computational neuroscience is the study of brain function in terms of the information processing properties of the structures that make up the nervous system. It is an interdisciplinary science that links the diverse fields of neuroscience, cognitive science and psychology with electrical engineering, computer science, mathematics and physics.
Computational neuroscience is distinct from psychological connectionism and machine learning in that it emphasizes descriptions of functional and biologically realistic neurons (and neural systems) and their physiology and dynamics. These models capture the essential features of the biological system at multiple spatial-temporal scales, from membrane currents, protein and chemical coupling to network oscillations, columnar and topographic architecture and learning and memory. These computational models are used to frame hypotheses that can be directly tested by current or future biological and/or psychological experiments.
These computational models are used to frame hypotheses that can be directly tested by biological or psychological experiments.
Computational modeling of higher cognitive functions has only recently begun. Experimental data comes primarily from single-unit recording in primates. The frontal lobe and parietal lobe function as integrators of information from multiple sensory modalities. There are some tentative ideas regarding how simple mutually inhibitory functional circuits in these areas may carry out biologically relevant computation.
Neurocritical care or neurointensive care is a branch of medicine that emerged in the 1980s and deals with life-threatening diseases of the nervous system, which are those that involve the brain, spinal cord and nerves. The doctors who practice this type of medicine are called neurointensivists, and can have medical training in many fields, including neurology, anesthesiology, emergency medicine, or neurosurgery. Common diseases treated in neurointensive care units include strokes, ruptured aneurysms, brain and spinal cord injury from trauma, seizures (especially those that last for a long period of time- status epilepticus, and/or involve trauma to the patient, i.e., due to a stroke or a fall), swelling of the brain (intracranial edema), infections of the brain (encephalitis) and the brain's or spine's meninges (meningitis), brain tumors (especially malignant cases; with neurological oncology), and weakness of the muscles required to breathe (such as the diaphragm).
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