Journal of Nephrology and Urology is an Open Access peer-reviewed publication that discusses current research and advancements in diagnosis and management of kidney disorders as well as related epidemiology, pathophysiology and molecular genetics.
Nephrology deals with the study of normal kidney function and kidney related problems, the preservation of kidney health and the treatment of kidney problems, from diet and medication to renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney replacement). Systemic conditions that affect the kidneys (such as diabetes and auto immune diseases) and systemic problems that occur as a result of kidney problems (such as renal osteodystrophy and hypertension) are also studied under nephrology
Urology also known as genitourinary tract is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary tract system and the male reproductive system. Organs under the domain of urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra and the male reproductive organs(testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis).
The main objective of the journal is to advance, collate and disseminate knowledge about Kidney’s structural functioning and pathological conditions. It mainly focuses on basic research and clinical practice of nephrology, urology, including the internal medicine and surgical intervention fields. The journal encourages articles that bear directly associated with nephrotic syndrome, Chronic Kidney Disease, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, lupus nephritis etc.
Manuscripts should present novel findings addressing significant investigations with in the discipline, in the form of original article, review, short communication, or case report. The article submission, review and publication can be easily monitored with a user-friendly editorial manager system. Manuscripts submitted goes through an extensive peer reviewed which ensures to be of best standard.
Submit Manuscript through online manuscript submission tracking system at https://www.imedpub.com/submissions/nephrology-urology.html or as attachment to email: [email protected]
CKD is a type of kidney disease in which there is a loss of kidney function over a period of months or years. The stages of CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease) are mainly based on measured or estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate. Estimated glomerular filtration rates based on serum creatinine values are used to diagnose this condition.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) refers to all five stages of kidney damage, from very mild damage in Stage 1 to complete kidney failure in Stage 5. The stages of kidney disease are based on how well the kidneys can do their job – to filter waste and extra fluid out of the blood.
Stage 1 with normal or high GFR (GFR > 90 ml/min)
Stage 2 Mild CKD (GFR = 60-89 ml/min)
Stage 3A Moderate CKD (GFR = 45-59 ml/min)
Stage 3B Moderate CKD (GFR = 30-44 ml/min)
Stage 4 Severe CKD (GFR = 15-29 ml/min)
Stage 5 End Stage CKD (GFR <15 ml/min)
Related Journals of Chronic Kidney Disease: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Chronic diseases and injuries in Canada, Preventing chronic disease.
Nephrotic syndrome occurs when release of 3 grams of more protein in the urine on a single spot urine collection due to increased glomerular permeability.
Related Journals of Nephrotic Syndrome: Journal of Nephrology and Urology, Journal of Kidney, Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics, Japanese Journal of Nephrology, International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease, Journal of Renal Care.
Glomerulonephritis is a condition when due to inflammation or non-inflammation of glomeruli takes place, which take part in filtration of waste and fluids, results in inactivation of kidney followed by kidney failure.
Related Journals of Glomerulonephritis: Renal Medicine Journals, Journal of Kidney, Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics, Japanese Journal of Nephrology, International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease, Journal of Renal Care, CardioRenal Medicine.
Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis caused from Streptococcal infection which develops glomerulonephritis is characterized by the appearance of hematuria, proteinuria, red blood cell in the urine, edema, and hypertension with or without oliguria.
Related Journals of Acute Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis: Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics, Japanese Journal of Nephrology, International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease, Journal of Renal Care, CardioRenal Medicine.
Henoch–Schönlein Purpura (HSP) often starts with throat infection is a disease involving inflammation of small blood vessels. Here the skin, mucous membranes, and blood vessels of intestine, joints, and kidneys start leaking if there is kidney involvement that can lead to chronic kidney diseases as there will be a small release of blood and protein in the urine.
Related Journals of Henoch–Schönlein Purpura (HSP): Journal of Nephrology and Urology, Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics, Journals of American Society of Nephrology
Among different types of vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) and Wegener's Granulomatosis (W.G.) are the more common diseases affecting the kidney.
Polyarteritis nodosa is a systemic vasculitis of small- or medium-sized muscular arteries presenting with the manifestation of glomerulopathies. The classic type of polyarteritis nodosa may result from ischaemic renal changes, hypertension, immobilization with renal infarctions or haemorrhage related to the kidney. Untreated, the disease is fatal. The most serious associated conditions generally involve the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract.
Wegener's granulomatosus is a rare disorder in which blood vessels become inflamed is an autoimmune disorder People develops damage in tissue from the lungs, airways, and the kidneys. Kidney involvement may result in blood in the urine and may result in kidney failure which can quickly get worse. Kidney function may not improve even when the condition is controlled by medicines.
Related Journals of Renal Vasculitis: Renal Failure, Journal of Renal Care, Renal Society of Australasia Journal, CardioRenal Medicine.
Cryoglobulinaemia is a medical condition associated with the formation of cryoglobulins. The cryoglobulin- protein complex is mainly an immunoglobulin (antibody) attached to another immunoglobulin (antigen) which cause agglutination. The complex has the character of precipitation below normal body temperature. The presence of cryoglobulins in the serum can cause inflammation and block blood vessels and may result in a clinical syndrome of systemic inflammation affecting mostly the kidney and skin.
Related Journals of Cryoglobulinaemia: Journal of Nephrology and Urology, Journal of Clinical Pathology, Kidney Disorders and Clinical Practices,Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Fabry's disease is a lysosomal storage disease results from the deficiency of the enzyme a-galactosidase. This, in turn, results in an accumulation of a particular type of fat called globotriaosylceramide. The disease is inherited as X-linked, the homozygous males are most affected while the heterozygous females are asymptomatic. Renal manifestations include haematuria, proteinuria and progressive uraemia. Kidney sections will show changes in visceral glomerular epithelial cells, endothelial cells and tubular cells in the form of fat accumulations as seen by light microscopy and myelin as seen by EM. Usually, patients die from the cardiac or renal disease in fourth of fifth decades of life.
Related Journals of Fabry's Disease: Nephrology, Haematology, Kidney disorders and clinical practice, Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics, Kidney, Liver, Liver: Disease & Transplantation, American Journal of Nephrology, Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
The disease is common in malarial endemic areas. It affects children more than adults. It occurs in both quartan and falciparum malaria. Quartan malarial nephropathy tends to be chronic and progressive while falciparum malarial nephropathy tends to resolve completely after antimalarial treatment.
Quartan Malarial Nephropathy: The disease is caused by plasmodium malariae which is common in Africa. Histopathologically, the disease is membranous in children while in adults it is membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, immunofluorescence microscopy will show IgG, IgM and C3 deposits. In 25% of cases P. malariae antigens could be detected.
Falciparum Malarial Nephropathy: Falciparum malaria is a common cause of acute renal failure in tropics. Both glomerular and tubulointerstitial nephritis are known to occur. Glomerulonephritis is usually mild and transient. Histologically, it is mesangial proliferative G.N. with C3, IgM and malarial antigen deposits.
Related Journals of Malarial nephropathy: American Journal of Nephrology, International Journal of Nephrology, Medical & Surgical Urology, Journal of Transplantation Technologies & Research, Journal of Kidney, Internal Medicine: Open Access,
Tubulointerstitial Nephritis usually occurs in patients suffering from high fever, hypovolaemia, hemolytic jaundice, intravascular coagulation, hyperviscosity and heavy parasitaemia. There is acute tubular necrosis (toxic and ischaemic), obstruction of distal nephron with mononuclear cells. Tubulointerstitial Nephritis diseases generally involve tubules and/or the interstitium of the kidney and spare the glomeruli.
Related Journals of Tubulointerstitial Nephritis: Nephrology journals, Internal Medicine: Open Access, Journal of Kidney, Kidney Research and Clinical Practice,Medical & Surgical Urology
Glomerular Filtration Rate: Normally the kidney receives 20-25% of the cardiac output. Extrarenal (prerenal) factors including blood pressure and circulating blood volume will affect RBF and GFR. When blood pressure or circulating blood volume decreases RBF and GFR decrease and vice versa. In adults, recommended equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from serum creatinine include the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation (IDMS-traceable version) and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation.
Urine albumin creatinine ratio: UACR is a ratio between two measured substances. Unlike a dipstick test for albumin, UACR is unaffected by variation in urine concentration. Albuminuria1 is present when UACR is greater than 30 mg/g and is a marker for CKD. Albuminuria is used to diagnose and monitor kidney disease.
Related Journals of Tests used to investigate CKD: Clinical Nephrology, Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, The Internet Journal of Nephrology, Indian Journal of Nephrology, Clinical Medicine Insights: Urology, BMC Nephrology, Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Kidney International.
• Urinary tract infection
• High dietary protein intake
• Congestive cardiac failure
• Acute febrile illness
• Heavy exercise within 24 hours
• Menstruation or vaginal discharge
• Drugs (especially NSAIDs)
Related Journals of Factors other than CKD known to increase Urine Albumin Excretion: Endocrinology & Diabetes Research, American Diabetes Association,Interventional Cardiology Journal,Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology,Journal of Cardiology,Journal of Drug Issues,Journal of Drug Abuse
Dialysis:When the kidneys have failed completely – that is, when a person has end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) – dialysis can take over the kidneys’ job of filtering and cleaning the blood. While dialysis is more hassle than having healthy kidneys – it takes time and effort – it gives people with ESKD a chance to lead a reasonable life.
There are two types of dialysis: haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis
Haemodialysis: The filtering happens outside the body.Your blood goes round and round through the filter, just as it does with a normal kidney. Germs (bacteria or viruses) cannot cross the walls of the fine tubes in the dialyser, so there is no risk of introducing infection to a patient.
Peritoneal dialysis: With peritoneal dialysis (PD) the cleaning of the blood is done inside the body instead of in an artificial filter. The peritoneal membrane lines the peritoneal or abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs (stomach, liver, spleen and intestines). It has a lot of blood vessels, and is an ideal dialysis membrane.
Related Journals of Dialysis: Diabetic Nephropathy, Pediatric Nephrology, Dialysis and Clinical Practice, Journal of Transplantation Technologies & Research, Clinical Diagnosis and Research, Journal of Clinical Case Reports, Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, Peritoneal Dialysis International, Seminars in Dialysis, Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis, Hemodialysis International, Advances in peritoneal dialysis, Conference on Peritoneal dialysis, Dialysis and Transplantation, Turkish Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Journal, Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Nephrology, Hemodialysis and Transplantation
A kidney transplant is an operation to transfer a healthy kidney from a person with healthy kidneys to a person with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD).The kidney may come from a deceased organ donor or from a living donor. Family members or individuals who are unrelated but make a good match may be able to donate one of their kidneys. This type of transplant is called a living transplant. Individuals who donate a kidney can live healthy lives with the remaining kidney.A kidney transplant is the best treatment for most people with ESKD – but like dialysis it does not provide a complete cure.
Related Journals of Kidney Transplantation: Journal of Nephrology, Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, Medical & Surgical Urology, Journal of Hypertension: Open Access, Journal of Transplantation Technologies & Research, Journal of Kidney, Journal of Nephrology, Urology and Transplantation, Turkish Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Journal, Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Nephrology, Hemodialysis and Transplantation, Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation
The drugs used to prevent rejection are many and varied. Confusingly, most drugs have two names – the proper generic or chemical name, and the trade name given to them by the drug company.
Drugs used in transplantation include:
prednisone, azathioprine, cyclosporine, mycophenolate, tacrolimus, sirolimus
Drugs given by injection to prevent or treat rejection include.
methylprednisolone, ATG (antithymocyte globulin), dacluzimab.
Journals related to Anti-rejection Medications used after Transplantation: Dialysis & Transplantation, Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation, Chinese Journal of Organ Transplantation, Cell & Tissue Transplantation & Therapy, Open Journal of Organ Transplant Surgery
Most elderly people with CKD are asymptomatic.
Relying on creatinine alone causes under-recognition of CKD.
eGFR (which is adjusted for age) improves diagnostic accuracy.
An eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 is common in older people, but is nevertheless predictive of significantly increased risks of adverse clinical outcomes, and should not be considered physiological or age-appropriate.
Some conditions that affect the kidneys and urinary tract are more common as people get older i.e. over 60 years of age, have diabetes, are obese, have high blood pressure, have established heart problems (heart failure or past heart attack) or have had a stroke,are a smoker, have a family history of kidney failure.
Related Journals of CKD Issues in the Elderly: American Journal of Nephrology, International Journal of Nephrology, Medical & Surgical Urology, Journal of Transplantation Technologies & Research, Journal of Kidney, Internal Medicine: Open Access, Kidney International, American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Clinical Kidney Journal, Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
Delaying or halting the status of Chronic Kidney Disease.Proper Diagnosing and treatment of the pathologic manifestations of Chronic Kidney Disease.Proper planning for long-term Kidney replacement therapy.
Management of early Chronic kidney Disease includes steps to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Recommend lifestyle changes and prescribe ACE Inhibitors or ARBs to lower blood pressure. Slow the progression of albuminuria.
Related Journals of Kidney Management: Clinical Nephrology, Nephrology journals, Internal Medicine: Open Access, Journal of Hypertension: Open Access, Journal of Kidney, Journal of Transplantation Technologies & Research, Seminars in Nephrology, Experimental Nephrology, Nephron - Clinical Practice, Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Early detection and intervention has been shown to reduce the progression of CKD and its complications. It is essential to regularly check for the known complications of CKD and to monitor treatment targets.
Related Journals of CKD Complications: Renal Medicine Journals, Dialysis Journals, Pediatrics & Therapeutics, Clinical Pediatrics: Open Access, Pediatric Care & Nursing, Pediatric Emergency care and medicine- Open Access, Pediatric Nephrology, Pediatrics, Journal of Pediatrics, Pediatric Research, Clinical Pediatrics
Eating well after diagnosed with kidney disease is very important, choice of nutrition should make an individual healthy and strong. Eating the right kinds and amounts of foods each day can help individuals with kidney disorders to work more easily and increase in longitivity. Feeling of unwell is easily generated during Kidney disease as the apetite and food taste will go in different ways. This is because waste products produced from the foods eaten is being build up in the blood instead of being removed by the kidneys. The need to make changes to diet depends on how well the kidneys are working.
Related Journals of Nutrition and Kidney failure: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Journal of Renal Nutrition, Indian journal of Transplantation, Advances in kidney Diseases and Treatment
Author(s): Shanmuganathan Velu, Arul Rajagopalan, Manorajan Rajendran, Jegan Arunachalam, Arun Prasath, Rakesh Durai, Benoy Varghese, Niranjan Raja and Shiva Kumar Ammayappan
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