Topical pharmacologic interventions versus active control, placebo, or no treatment for epidemic keratoconjunctivitis

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Duranta erecta Linn. belonging to the Verbenaceae family is widely used in the traditional systems of medicines practiced in Bangladesh, India, Nigeria, the Philippines, and Brazil. The ethnomedicinal application as vermifuge, febrifuge, diuretic, anti-parasitic, and anti-malarial are well documented. D. erecta is also a significant source of phenylethanoid glycoside known as acteoside-a drug in clinical trials for IgA nephropathy patients. Professional research data from 1963 to 2021 appeared in scholarly journals, and books were retrieved from scientific database platforms viz. Sci-Finder, PubMed, CNKI, Science Direct, Web of Science, Wiley, Google Scholar, Taylor and Francis, Springer, and Scopus. The chemical structures for all the phytomolecules were validated using Sci-finder and first-hand references. While plant name and synonyms were corroborated by “The Plant List”  hepato protection, and skin protective effects. In addition, the novel preparations, new pharmacological effects, and cdusafty of liquiritin are also discussed in this review. This review aims to critically highlight the existing studies on D. erecta, including its botanical authentication, geographical distribution, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties. Critical discussion is focused on the overview and gap in knowledge for future research. Additionally, the clinical significance of its major secondary metabolite, i.e., acteoside, has also been discussed with emphasis on biosynthesis, distribution, pre-clinical, and clinical outcomes We included randomized controlled trials that compared antiseptic agents, virustatic agents, or immune-modulating topical therapies with placebo or an active control

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