Cancer care represents a challenge for the healthcare systems of OECD member states. This also applies to the Netherlands, as cancer is the leading cause of death. High quality of care is essential to effectively tackle the burden of disease caused by cancer. According to the WHO health systems framework, quality is an intermediate goal of health systems, alongside safety, access and coverage. This study aimed to assess the quality of cancer care in the Netherlands, especially in terms of effectiveness. To assess the quality of cancer care in the Netherlands, participation rates in screening and 5-year survival rates for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer were used. The Netherlands is interested in ensuring quality healthcare, and quality is one of the three main objectives of the healthcare system. The 5-year survival rates for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer were above the respective OECD averages in 2014, but some countries are better positioned. Participation in screening for cervical cancer was relatively low in the Netherlands in 2017, below the OECD average.