Department of Immunology and Inflammatory Disease, University of Glass glow, UK
*Corresponding author: Elizabeth Kabeta, Department of Immunology and Inflammatory Disease, University of Glass glow, UK, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received date: March 01, 2022, Manuscript No. IPJHCR-22-12632; Editor assigned date: March 03, 2022, PreQC No. IPJHCR-22-12632 (PQ); Reviewed date: March 17, 2022, QC No. IPJHCR-22-12632; Revised date: March 22, 2022, Manuscript No. IPJHCR-22-12632 (R); Published date: March 29, 2022, DOI: 10.36648/ipjhcr.6.2.07
Citation: Kabeta E (2022) Prevention of CVD Involves Improving Risk Factors Through: Healthy Eating, Exercise Avoidance of Tobacco Smoke And Limiting Alcohol Intake. J Heart Cardiovasc Res Vol.6 No.2: 07
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels CVD includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction commonly known as a heart attack. Other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, abnormal heart rhythms, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, thromboembolic disease, and venous thrombosis. The underlying mechanisms vary depending on the disease. It is estimated that dietary risk factors are associated with 53% of CVD deaths. Coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease involve atherosclerosis. This may be caused by high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, excessive alcohol consumption, and poor sleep, among other things. High blood pressure is estimated to account for approximately 13% of CVD deaths, while tobacco accounts for 9%, diabetes 6%, lack of exercise 6%, and obesity 5%. Rheumatic heart disease may follow untreated strep throat. It is estimated that up to 90% of CVD may be preventable. Prevention of CVD involves improving risk factors through: healthy eating, exercise, avoidance of tobacco smoke and limiting alcohol intake. Treating risk factors, such as high blood pressure, blood lipids and diabetes is also beneficial. Treating people who have strep throat with antibiotics can decrease the risk of rheumatic heart disease. The use of aspirin in people, who are otherwise healthy, is of unclear benefit. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide except Africa. Together CVD resulted in 17.9 million deaths (32.1%) in 2015, up from 12.3 million (25.8%) in 1990.
There are many risk factors for heart diseases: age, sex, tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, obesity, genetic predisposition and family history of cardiovascular disease, raised blood pressure (hypertension), raised blood sugar (diabetes mellitus), raised blood cholesterol (hyperlipidemia), undiagnosed celiac disease, psychosocial factors, poverty and low educational status, air pollution and poor sleep While the individual contribution of each risk factor varies between different communities or ethnic groups the overall contribution of these risk factors is very consistent. Some of these risk factors, such as age, sex or family history/genetic predisposition, are immutable; however, many important cardiovascular risk factors are modifiable by lifestyle change, social change, drug treatment (for example prevention of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes). People with obesity are at increased risk of atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. Cardiovascular disease in a person's parents increases their risk by 3 fold and genetics is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Genetic cardiovascular disease can occur either as a consequence of single variant (Mandolin) or polygenic influences. There are more than 40 inherited cardiovascular diseases that can be traced to a single disease-causing DNA variant, although these conditions are rare. Most common cardiovascular diseases are non-Mandolin and are thought to be due to hundreds or thousands of genetic variants (known as single nucleotide polymorphisms), each associated with a small effect.
Insufficient physical activity (defined as less than 5 x 30 minutes of moderate activity per week, or less than 3 x 20 minutes of vigorous activity per week) is currently the fourth leading risk factor for mortality worldwide. In 2008, 31.3% of adults aged 15 or older (28.2% men and 34.4% women) were insufficiently physically active. The risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus is reduced by almost a third in adults who participate in 150 minutes of moderate physical activity each week (or equivalent). In addition, physical activity assists weight loss and improves blood glucose control, blood pressure, and lipid profile and insulin sensitivity. These effects may, at least in part, explain its cardiovascular benefits.
High dietary intakes of saturated fat, trans-fats and salt, and low intake of fruits, vegetables and fish are linked to cardiovascular risk, although whether all these associations indicate causes is disputed. The World Health Organization attributes approximately 1.7 million deaths worldwide to low fruit and vegetable consumption. Frequent consumption of high-energy foods, such as processed foods that are high in fats and sugars, promotes obesity and may increase cardiovascular risk. The amount of dietary salt consumed may also be an important determinant of blood pressure levels and overall cardiovascular risk. There is moderate quality evidence that reducing saturated fat intake for at least two years reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. High trans-fat intake has adverse effects on blood lipids and circulating inflammatory markers, and elimination of trans-fat from diets has been widely advocated. In 2018 the World Health Organization estimated that Tran’s fats were the cause of more than half a million deaths per year. There is evidence that higher consumption of sugar is associated with higher blood pressure and unfavorable blood lipids, and sugar intake also increases the risk of diabetes mellitus. High consumption of processed meats is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, possibly in part due to increased dietary salt intake.