Human impacts and environment effects related to nanoparticles generated from road traffic have recently attracted wide scientists’ attention. Given the harmful impacts of nanoparticles on human health (i. e. cardiac-rhythm disturbance, heart attacks, visibility impairment, premature death, etc.), their control and assessment seem to be an absolute priority. The generation of energy for transportation systems by clean, efficient and environmentalfriendly means is nowadays one of the major challenges for engineers and scientists. Among the promising transport modes are those based on the use of purely electric or hybrid transport cars. Electrical engines fueled by fuel cells are possible solution to the rarity of conventional hydrocarbon fuels. As well known, fuel cells convert chemical energy of a fuel gas directly into electrical work, and are efficient and environmentally clean, since no combustion is required. This paper outlines the existing or emerging fuel cells’ technologies with emphasis on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Special attention will be devoted to the design and operation of SOFCs, paying attention to the technological limitations based on materials’ requirements and fuel specifications. Moreover, advantages of SOFCs with respect to the other fuel cell technologies will be identified throughout this paper. Moreover, it reviews the restrictions and the benefits of SOFCs in relationship with energy, environment and sustainable development.