Molecular aspects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in cardiovascular pathologies

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Cardiovascular diseases are the most leading reasons for mortality worldwide. In the past few years, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and its donors have been strongly emerged and suggested as promising therapeutic agents in cardiovascular disease, due to their ability to reverse a wide spectrum of pathophysiological processes. Since, H2S and its donors have established their role as vasodilatory, neuromodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. However, the interference of H2S with the other biological molecules during the pathophysiological conditions, particularly in cardiac failure represents an enigma and still unclear. For instance, it is beyond debate that the interaction of H2S and NO is controversial. We discuss the cardiovascular protective properties of H2S, the interference and cross-talk between H2S and NO, along with its interference with the other mediators under normal and pathological conditions. In this review, we demonstrate the rational and underlying mechanisms for its cardiovascular protective role against the development of cardiovascular diseases, including systemic and pulmonary hypertension; hypoxia in carotid bodies; periadventitial vasorelaxation; cardiac injury induced by ischemia, oxidative stress, and CaMKII.

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