Reach Us +44 118 315 0749

Immune System of Fetuses is able to Exert Selection Pressure on Viral Evolution

Jan Slapeta*

Department of Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

*Corresponding Author:
Jan Slapeta
Department of Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
E-mail:[email protected]

Received date:  August 05, 2022, Manuscript No. IPWHRM-22-14665; Editor assigned date: August 08, 2022, PreQC No. IPWHRM-22-14665(PQ); Reviewed date: August 17, 2022, QC No. IPWHRM-22-14665; Revised date: August 24, 2022, Manuscript No. IPWHRM-22-14665(R); Published date: September 05, 2022, DOI: 10.36648/ IPWHRM.6.5.44
Citation: Slapeta J (2022) Immune System of Fetuses is able to Exert Selection Pressure on Viral Evolution. J Women’s Health Reprod Med Vol.6 No.5: 44

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Womens Health and Reproductive Medicine


Tritrichomonas foetus causes chronic large-bowel diarrhoea in cats. This condition is difficult to treat because there are few registered or effective products available, making ronidazole frequently used without a prescription. It is unknown how much T. foetus is resistant to ronidazole. We isolated novel T. foetus "feline" genotype strains from two cats in the same household in 2017 and monitored these cats for three years to demonstrate in vitro resistance to ronidazole and self-resolution of the infection. Anaerobic and aerobic culture assays were used to determine whether T. foetus cultures from the cats were resistant to metronidazole and ronidazole in vitro. After 48 hours of aerobic incubation, metronidazole and ronidazole's respective minimum lethal concentrations for the novel strains were 50–100 g/ml and 6.25–12.50 g/ml. The minimum lethal concentrations for susceptible T. foetus strains were 1.56–12.50 g/ml for metronidazole and 0.39–3.13 g/ml for ronidazole. Repeat diagnostic qPCR and culture were used to evaluate the infection's self-resolution. Despite being positive in 2018, the cat samples no longer produce qPCR results that are positive in 2020 and 2021, indicating that they have resolved themselves during this time. For the first time, this study found that Australian cats were resistant to ronidazole, and the infection resolved itself without the use of antibiotics. Clinicians can learn from this study how to reduce the use of off-label ronidazole and how long it should take for cats in single-family homes to recover.

Evidence of Communicative Engagement in Fetuses

One of the main causes of infectious infertility in cattle is campylobacter fetus, a zoonotic pathogen. The majority of diagnostic laboratories use PCR to quickly and easily identify C. fetus. The lack of a standard PCR test for C. fetus detection and subspecies differentiation makes it difficult to compare results. The 16S rRNA, gyrB, cpn60, cstA, cdtB, and nahE genes were used to identify C. fetus, and ISCfe1, sapB2, parA, and virB11 were used to differentiate between subspecies in this study. Each PCR assay was tested on 289 bull preputial samples that had also been analyzed by 16S rRNA barcode metagenomics to determine its analytical sensitivity and specificity. There were 41 C. fetus-positive samples in all. The best results were obtained with the P12 PCR assay, which targeted the gyrB gene and found the pathogen in 95.1% of positive samples. We were able to correctly identify 85.4% of the C. fetus-positive samples as C. fetus venerealis using at least one subspecies-specific PCR for the purpose of distinguishing between C. fetus subspecies; however, C. fetus fetus was not found in any of the samples that were tested. Surprisingly, after PCR, C. fetus subspecies amplification was found in some samples that were thought to be C. fetus-negative (33.1%), indicating the need for strict criteria to differentiate between the two C. fetus subspecies in order to gain a better understanding of their roles in the spread and development of bovine infectious infertility. Finding any evidence of communicative engagement in fetuses was the primary objective of this study. It is reasonable to assume that communicative readiness develops prior to birth given the continuity of pre- and postnatal development, the social responsiveness of the newborn, and the development of sensorimotor competence in the fetus.

During the applications of three conditions, both interactive and non-interactive: Fetuses’ (N = 12, 2–33 gestational weeks) behaviors were recorded through 4D scanning with Voluson S10 ultrasound and coded frame by frame. The mother's voice, the touch of her abdomen, and a control condition were also recorded. When the mother touched, the foetuses displayed distinct right-hand self-touch behaviors. When the mother was touching her abdomen, there was less movement than when she was talking or under the baseline conditions. Right-hand touch responses also decreased in the interactive touch condition, but not in the interactive talk condition. Right-handed face touch responses revealed a similar outcome. In the interactive talk condition, fetuses opened their mouths for a longer period of time than in the non-interactive talk condition. Compared to all other conditions, the interactive touch condition saw a significant increase in sucking behaviors during the first 60 seconds. This is the first study to compare the fetus’s interactive and non-interactive engagement. This study suggests that fetuses in the third trimester respond to contingent interactions and differentiate between non-interactive and interactive external stimuli. The intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infects the fetus through the placenta and causes severe complications for the fetus. A spontaneous abortion is one of the complications of congenital toxoplasmosis. In this study, the genotypes of parasite isolates and the prevalence of toxoplasmosis infection in Spontaneously Aborted Fetuses (SAFs) were investigated. From February to September 2018, placentas from 330 SAF samples were collected in Jahrom (Fars province).

Cervical Vertebral Osteomyelitis

Each tissue of the placenta contained DNA.A 529-bp Repeat Element (RE) gene-based nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR) assay was used to identify the T. gondii infection. Following that, Toxoplasma was genotyped using the GRA6 gene-based PCR-RFLP technique. 48 out of 330 samples had T. gondii infections, which were found to be 14.5%. Nine T. gondii isolates were all characterized by genotype II, according to the results. There was a statistically significant correlation between the mothers' education levels and the fetus' age and the prevalence of T. gondii infection (P 0.05).Mothers with a university education had the lowest rates of Toxoplasma infection, and fetuses between the ages of 8 and 9 weeks had the highest rates of infection. The present study suggests that toxoplasmosis plays a significant role in SAFs in Jahrom City. Humans rarely contract the pathogen Campylobacter fetus. In immunosuppressed patients, it mostly causes invasive infections. The first case of cervical vertebral osteomyelitis in a previously healthy man who had a history of drinking alcohol on a daily basis is presented here. Six weeks of treatment resulted in excellent clinical recovery and laboratory marker normalization. Understanding how immune responses influence virus evolution and vertical transmission will be improved by studying HIV-1 evolution and selection pressure in fetuses. The majority of infections, or 67 percent, occur within two months of childbirth, according to in-depth genetic analyses of the HIV-1 env gene from 12 in utero transmission pairs. In addition, the env sequences of long-term-infected fetuses are highly divergent and belong to distinct phylogenetic lineages from their maternal counterparts. Neutralizing antibodies and T cell immune responses frequently target the same regions as host-selection sites for neonate viruses. The immune system of fetuses is able to exert selection pressure on viral evolution, as evidenced by the identification of distinct selection sites in the env gene of fetal viruses. An alternative method for examining adaptive immunity in fetuses is to examine the selection and evolution of HIV-1 or other viruses in fetuses. Alternative methods are needed because the current methods for controlling Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) are not entirely effective. The exact mechanisms by which Intra-Uterine Growth Restricted (IUGR) fetuses are more resistant to transplacental PRRS Virus-2 (PRRSV2) infection are unknown. This study set out to find out how many of a subset of Tight Junction (TJ) proteins are present at the maternal-fetal interface and where they are located, as well as any changes that might affect how nutrients or PRRSV2 move across the epitheliochorial placenta.

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Viewing options

Flyer image

Share This Article