Demonstrating the Value of the Oncology Pharmacist within the Healthcare Team

Youichiro Kakugawa*
Department of Gynae-onocology, St. James’s Hospital; Dublin, Ireland
*Corresponding author: Youichiro K. Dept of Gynae-onocology, St. James’s Hospital; Dublin, Ireland
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: November 05, 2021; Accepted date: November 19, 2021; Published date: November 26, 2021
Citation: Youichiro K(2021) Didactic Curriculum for the Radiation Oncology Vol. 4 No. 7: 103

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Description

Fall incidents are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. The aim of this cohort study was to determine the incidence, costs, and quality of life for fall-related injuries in the older Dutch population presenting at the emergency department. Data on fall-related injuries in persons aged 65 years or older were retrieved from the Dutch Injury Surveillance System, which records injuries treated at the emergency department, and a patient follow-up survey conducted between 2003 and 2007. Injury incidence, discharge rates, healthcare costs, and quality of life measures were calculated. Fall-related injuries were to the upper or lower limb in 70% of cases and consisted mainly of fractures (60%), superficial injuries (21%), and open wounds (8%). Falls led to a total healthcare cost of €474.4 million, which represents 21% of total healthcare expenses due to injuries. Both admitted and nonadmitted patients reported a reduced quality of life up to 9 months after the injury. Fall-related injuries in older adults are age and gender related, leading to high healthcare consumption, costs, and longterm reduced quality of life. Further implementation of falls prevention strategies is needed to control the burden of fallrelated injuries in the aging population [1]. Moral distress occurs when professionals cannot carry out what they believe to be ethically appropriate actions. This review describes the publication trend on moral distress and explores its relationships with other constructs. A bibliometric analysis revealed that since 1984, 239 articles were published, with an increase after 2011. Most of them (71%) focused on nursing. Of the 239 articles, 17 empirical studies were systematically analyzed. Moral distress correlated with organizational environment (poor ethical climate and collaboration), professional attitudes (low work satisfaction and engagement), and psychological characteristics (low psychological empowerment and autonomy). Findings revealed that moral distress negatively affects clinicians’ wellbeing and job retention. Further studies should investigate protective psychological factors to develop preventive interventions. As global rates of preventable chronic diseases have reached epidemic proportions, there has been an increased focus on strategies to improve health behaviors and associated outcomes. One such strategy, health and wellness coaching, has been inconsistently defined and shown mixed results [2]. Eight hundred abstracts were initially identified through PubMed, with 284 full-text articles ultimately included. The majority (76%) were empirical articles. The literature operationalized health and wellness coaching as a process that is fully or partially patient-centered (86% of articles), included patient-determined goals (71%), incorporated self-discovery and active learning processes (63%) (vs more passive receipt of advice), encouraged accountability for behaviors (86%), and provided some type of education to patients along with using coaching processes (91%). Additionally, 78% of articles indicated that the coaching occurs in the context of a consistent, ongoing relationship with a human coach who is trained in specific behavior change, communication, and motivational skills. Despite disparities in how health and wellness coaching have been operationalized previously, this systematic review observes an emerging consensus in what is referred to as health and wellness coaching; namely, a patient-centered process that is based upon behavior change theory and is delivered by health professionals with diverse backgrounds. The actual coaching process entails goal-setting determined by the patient, encourages self-discovery in addition to content education, and incorporates mechanisms for developing accountability in health behaviors. With a clear definition for health and wellness coaching, robust research can more accurately assess the effectiveness of the approach in bringing about changes in health behaviors, health outcomes and associated costs that are targeted to reduce the global burden of chronic disease. Negative Healthcare Provider Attitudes toward Patients Negative healthcare provider attitudes toward patients with physical disabilities may challenge the delivery of quality care to patients. The objective of this study was to systematically review published studies examining the attitudes of healthcare students and professionals toward patients with physical disabilities. They resolved disagreements by discussion or with the help of an additional reviewer when necessary. Articles were included if they examined healthcare professionals’ and students’ attitudes toward patients with physical disabilities. We did not perform a meta-analysis because of the variation in instruments used and variables examined. In addition, female healthcare students and professionals were found to have more positive attitudes toward patients with physical disabilities than do their male colleaguesLimited evidence exists examining the influence of age, race or ethnicity, and rank of student or professional on attitudes toward patients with physical disabilities. Finally, it was found that healthcare students and professionals reported overall more favorable attitudes than did individuals in non-healthcare professions [4]. Although many oncology pharmacists are embedded members within the healthcare team, data documenting their contributions to optimal patient outcomes are growing. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the value of the oncology pharmacist within the healthcare team and describe the knowledge, skills, and functions of the oncology pharmacist. A systematic literature review of articles that were published on PubMed between January 1951 and October 2018 was completed. Identified abstracts were reviewed and included if they focused on measuring the value or impact of the oncology pharmacist on provider/patient satisfaction, improvement of medication safety, improvement of quality/clinical care outcomes, economics, and intervention acceptance. Review articles, meta-analysis, and studies not evaluating oncology pharmacist activities were excluded. Studies were thematically coded into four themes (clinical care, patient education, informatics, and cost savings) by 10 oncology pharmacists With an expected shortage of oncology physicians and the ongoing development of complex oncology therapies, the board-certified oncology pharmacist is well suited to serve as a physician extender alongside nurse practitioners and/or physician assistants as the medication expert on the oncology care team. The demonstrated value of the oncology pharmacist supports their role as frontline providers of patient care [5].

References

1. Klaas AH (2010) Societal Consequences of Falls in the Older Population: Injuries, Healthcare Costs. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 71: 748-753. 2. Lamiani G (2015) When healthcare professionals cannot do the right thing: A systematic review of moral distress and its correlates. J Health Psychol 22: 51-67. 3. Ruth QW (2013) A Systematic Review of the Literature on Health and Wellness Coaching: Defining a Key Behavioral Intervention in Healthcare. Glob Adv Health Med 2: 38-57. 4. Satchidanand (2012) Attitudes of Healthcare Students and Professionals Toward Patients with Physical Disability. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 91: 533-545. 5. Eve MS (2017) Demonstrating the value of the oncology pharmacist within the healthcare team. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 25: 1945-1967. Journal of Biology and Medical Research Vol.4 No.7:103 2021 2

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