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Bactericidal Activities against Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

Muhammad Ikram*

Department of Physics, Government College University Lahore, Lahore 54000, Punjab, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:
Muhammad Ikram
Department of Physics, Government College University Lahore, Lahore 54000, Punjab, Pakistan
E-mail:: [email protected]

Received date:  August 02, 2022, Manuscript No. IPJAMB-22-14770; Editor assigned date: August 05, 2022, PreQC No. IPJAMB-22-14770 (PQ); Reviewed date: August 15, 2022, QC No. IPJAMB-22-14770; Revised date: August 25, 2022, Manuscript No. IPJAMB-22-14770 (R); Published date: September 02, 2022, DOI: 10.36648/2576-1412.6.9.87
Citation:Ikram M (2022) Bactericidal Activities against Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria. J Appl Microbiol Biochem Vol.6 No.9: 087

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Description

Major issue in everyday life everywhere. Tetracycline (TC) is a bacteriostatic drug with numerous antibacterial properties. Utilizing nanotechnology is one potential strategy for enhancing antibiotics' penetration and antibacterial activity. This study examined the synthesis, characterization, and efficacy of TC loading in biocompatible magnesium oxide nanoparticles against diarrhea-causing MDR bacteria E. coli and S. flexneri. DLS, SEM-EDS, UV–vis spectroscopy, and FTIR methods were used to adequately characterize TC-loaded-MgONPs. Studies on this nanoparticle's efficacy against bacteria and biofilms show that it successfully killed both planktonic and sessile forms of those bacteria. In addition, as an antibacterial action, it induced Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the bacterial cell and significantly reduced the production of bacterial EPS. In particular, the C. elegans model's colonization of MDR E. coli and S. flexneri was effectively reduced by MgONPs-TC. As a result, all of these data suggest that MgONPs-TC are a very promising strategy for battling diseases caused by MDR bacteria that cause diarrhea in medical settings with limited healthcare budgets.

Effectiveness against both Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

To combat the growing resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics, new antibiotics must be developed immediately. A marine-derived fungus was used to isolate Penicilazaphilone C, a novel natural compound. It has been shown to be effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Its bactericidal mechanism, on the other hand, is still a mystery. In this case, time-kill assays proved that PAC kills bacteria quickly and effectively. In addition, the results of 4D label-free quantitative proteome assays demonstrated that PAC has a significant impact on more than 898 proteins in Escherichia coli. The mode of PAC action against E. coli was to block respiration, inhibit assimilatory nitrate reduction and dissimilar sulfur reduction, facilitate assimilatory sulfate reduction, suppress cysteine and methionine biosynthesis, down-regulate antioxidant protein expression and induced intracellular ROS accumulation, weaken bacterial chemotaxis, destroy flagellar assembly, etc., according to a combination of the results of biofilm formation, galactoand finally result in the death of the bacteria. Our findings suggest that PAC could be used as a new antibiotic in medicine and regulate E. coli across multiple targets. Cationic antimicrobial peptides are a promising alternative for combating antibiotic resistance and play an important role in the innate immunity of the host. In this study, two CAMPs—LL-37 and CAMA—were tested for their ability to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of IB3-1 cells, a cell line derived from cystic fibrosis patients.PA survival was affected differently by the two CAMPs depending on when they were administered. Prior to infection, IB3-1 cells treated with CAMPs at sub-minimum bactericidal concentrations had a greater bactericidal effect. These results suggest that CAMPs cause IB3-1 cells to produce factors that enhance their ability to kill bacteria. However, when supra-minimum bactericidal concentrations of the CAMPs were added to IB3-1 cells simultaneously or after infection, we observed no bactericidal effect. After administering LL-37, Western blot analysis revealed a significant decrease in LL-37 levels and an increase in LL-37 binding to infected IB3-1 cell supernatants. Without being toxic, LL-37 elicited a mild inflammatory response in the cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that CAMPs might prevent disease. After cell infection, when CAMPs were added, their bactericidal effects were low. This was probably because CAMPs were broken down by bacterial or epithelial cell proteases or because CAMPs stuck to cells and was less available to kill bacteria directly.

Formation of Amphipathic Helical Structures

An antimicrobial peptide was developed as a potential substitute for antibiotics. An electro stimulated arboreal South American frog, Hypsiboas albopunctatus, yielded a novel 18-amino acid antimicrobial peptide known as Hylin a1, which was found to have cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity. Based on the parent peptide Hylin a1, the analog peptides were created in a recent study to maintain antimicrobial efficacy while reducing toxicity. By replacing the analog peptides with alanine and lysine, hydrophobic moments and net charges were induced as well as the formation of amphipathic -helical structures in membrane-imitating environments. Additionally, the analog peptides had lower selectivity for mammalian cells and lower hemolytic effects than Hylin a1.Against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Hylin a1-11K and Hylin a1-15K, in particular, demonstrated broad-spectrum antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity. Analog peptides eliminated bacteria by binding to lipopolysaccharide and disrupting the bacterial membrane, according to permeability assays. By suppressing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by A. baumannii infection, Hylin a1-11K and Hylin a1-15K reduced inflammation and effectively treated carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii infection in mice. As a result, our findings suggest that the analog peptide substituted with a number of residues based on Hylin a1 may be effective in treating carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii infections due to its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Due to their high biocompatibility, chemical stability, and adequate resistance-to-specific weight ratio, titanium alloys are attractive for the production of bone implants. However, it has very limited ability to reject bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Additionally, since their tri biological resistance and low hardness restrict their application, surface treatments are frequently utilized to enhance this property. The purpose of this study was to propose the deposition of TiAlVN(Ag)x nano composite coatings by means of direct current magnetron sputtering. The goal was to give the coated substrates a significant bactericidal effect without significantly affecting their hardness or their ability to sustain life. The coatings were deposited from silver and Ti6Al4V alloy targets that were 180 degrees apart. The compound contained 8.1% silver by atomic weight; 10.6%; the microstructural properties, elemental chemical composition, phase composition, and surface topography of the deposited coatings were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The power applied to the silver target was varied between 0 and 100W, while the power supplied to the titanium alloy target remained constant at 2000W. Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibition and adhesion were used to measure the composite coatings' bactericidal effect, and human osteoblasts from the Saos-2 cell line were used to measure cell viability using the MTT method. P. aeruginosa was significantly inhibited by all deposited coatings, with inhibition exceeding 99.99% and surface adhesion avoided at 100%.Osteoblast adhesion to coated substrates and high biocompatibility were demonstrated by the TiAlVN(Ag) samples containing 8.1 and 10.6 percent silver, respectively. These samples also had the highest ratio of mechanical and tri biological properties.

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