Undetected diabetes and factors associated with it, among the students of University of Mu'tah, Jordan

Over the last ten years, the age-standardized prevalence of diabetes mellitus type-2 in Jordan has increased from 13% to 17.1%, representing a serious accelerating problem that increases the need of investigations, effective control and national awareness of the signs and symptoms of the disease. Our study aims to identify the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and the factors associated with it among University of Mu'tah. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A sample of 357 students from all 14 faculties of the university was interviewed face to face using a validated and well-structured questionnaire. The blood glucose of each student was measured with a glucose meter. Their heights and weights were measured to calculate the Body Mass Index (BMI). Moreover, we concentrated on collecting information related to socio-demographic status, physical activity and type of food consumed (fruits, vegetables, sweets and fast food). We found that 32/357 (8.96%) of the students showed abnormal glucose levels. The mean BMI was significantly higher among those having high blood glucose (26.197�7.911) than those having normal (24.206�4.361) t=2.25 p=0.025. The mean score of eating dessert/week was significantly higher among participants with high blood glucose (2.469�1.665) in comparison to the counter group (2.025�1.143) P=0.046, t=2.000. Yet, no significant relation with other sweets consumption (like; chocolate, ice cream and candy), nor with fast food, fruits or vegetables consumption. It seems that the levels of awareness about personal health, is not good. Actions and awareness steps are needed to avoid any future consequences. Data were collected using structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were taken from each participant. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) level was determined by samples taken early in the morning and readings of FBS≥126 mg/dL were classified as diabetes.
The multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify the predictors of undiagnosed DM; adjusted OR (AOR) with a 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of associations. The study revealed that the prevalence of undiagnosed DM was 10.2% with 95% CI 7.9 to 12.9. Ever checked blood glucose level (AOR=1.91, 95% CI 1.03 to 3.51), don’t know the symptoms of diabetes (AOR=2.06, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.89), family history of DM (AOR=2.5, 95% CI 1.21 to 5.18) and body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 (AOR=1.98, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.60) were factors associated with undiagnosed DM.

Author(s): RaghadAl-Qazaqi, Ru’a Tafesh, Waqar Al-Kubaisy Mohammah Hashem Salameh, Saker Sunna, Waleed Al Shakhely, Nesrin Mwafi, Abrar Saraireh ,Waha Al-Kassasbeh and Ghazi Majali

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