In this review paper, emission potentials of transport sector, common air pollution linked incidents and air pollutant concentration are assessed. A desk review of open access articles and secondary data from stakeholders integrated with key informant interview has been used. Accordingly, the rapidly increasing transport sectors together with the fast urbanization, poorly and slowly constructing road infrastructure and the type and quality of high sulfur containing fuel usage are the major derivers of Addis Ababa air quality degradation. Literatures have reported concentration of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, CO and Pb are 280 μg/m3, 285 μg/m3, 20 μg/m3, 97 ppm, <45 ppb, <0.10 μg/m3 and 2.8 ppm, respectively; which are quite greater than the tolerable limit of WHO  air quality guideline.
Acute upper respiratory infection increased with annual growth rate 47.18% from incidents 4539 (2003) to 212590 (2017). The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and Pneumonia are being increased by annual growth rate about 53.44% and 24.89%, respectively. Also, there are several other or unspecified diseases of the respiratory system are currently being recorded at healthcare centers.
In general, the increasing trends and nature of respiratory diseases are clearly attributed to the increasing vehicles and corresponding emissions. In addition to this, the nature and accessibility road, quality of fuel and type and quality of vehicles used in Addis Ababa affected emission rate and its corresponding incidents. Finally, improving the quality of vehicular fuel, focusing mass transport services, discouraging old car import and improving road infrastructure are suggested.