Aim: The radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng extract (PGE) against oxidative stress and liver tissue injury induced by gamma radiation was investigated. Also biochemical, oxidative markers and histological changes were estimated.
Materials and methods: Twenty white albino rats weighing 120-150 g.The animals were assigned into four groups, each group contained five rats. Group (1): Animals of the first group were kept as control, group (2): Rats of the second group were given (PGE) (100mg/ kg b.w), group (3): was given (PGE) before exposure to γ- radiation (IRR), group (4): only exposed to γ- radiation (IRR). Blood samples were taken for measurement of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), lipid profile, Alanine-amino-transferase (ALT) and Aspartate-amino-transferase (AST). Tissue samples from livers were taken for determination of oxidative, nitrosative markers nitric oxide (NOx), lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) level, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity.
Results: In the irradiated animals, MDA and NOx levels were significantly increased in the liver, while a marked decrease in hepatic Contents of GSH as well as the activity of SOD was demonstrated.The levels of total cholesterol, TG, LDL, as well as activities of AST, ALT, and level of ADMA, were significantly increased in the sera of the irradiated rats. This was coupled with decreased serum level of HDL. Preirradiation treatment with PGE caused significant decreases in MDA, NOx and produced a significant elevation of GSH content, SOD activity in the liver. Moreover, a significant decrease in total cholesterol, TG, LDL coupled with increased HDL as well as the activity of AST, ALT, were significantly ameliorated when PGE was injected before irradiation but serum ADMA level was non significantly decreased when compared to irradiated group. Apart from these, histopathological changes also revealed the protective effect of PGE against radiation induced damage of the liver tissues.
Conclusion: The increase in oxidative stress markers and the concomitant change in antioxidant levels indicated the role of oxidative stress in radiation-induced tissue damage. Moreover, Panax ginseng extract showed a radioprotective impact against radiation induced liver damage.