Cereals are among the most widely cultivated crops in North Africa and in the world, where they are the main source of carbohydrates for the majority of the population. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the fourth most important cereal crop, after maize (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L., Tricticum durum) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) Barley is grown both for human consumption and animal feed, but wheat remains the main staple food in Egypt. Therefore, barley has been used almost exclusively as animal feed. However, due to the increasing demand for cereals and the lack of adequate supply to meet this demand, there is a need for an increase in the production of cereal crops, especially those with high drought tolerance and low water demand that better suit the arid and semi-arid regions in Egypt and other areas of North Africa. Due to its relative tolerance to drought and other stress conditions and low water requirement, barley is regaining attention for cultivation instead of other water-consuming cereals, namely wheat, corn and rice.