This study included 1456 men and 1411 women who were trauma-exposed and underwent routine health examinations in a community epidemiological investigation. The participants completed the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Check ListCivilian Version (PCL-C) for PTSD and medical examinations to detect metabolic syndrome. Adjustments for age, marriage, exercise, education, cigarette smoking, cancer, stroke, angina, and thyroid disease were performed. The relationship between PTSD and metabolic syndrome and each of its components was analyzed by multiple logistic regressions. In women, PTSD was associated with metabolic syndrome (OR=1.53, 95% CI= 1.01- 1.95, p=0.047) and the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol component (OR=1.98, 95% CI= 1.04-2.12, p=0.002). In men, PTSD was related to the hypertension component of metabolic syndrome (OR=0.54, 95% CI= 0.31-0.92, p=0.023).