The isolation and characterization of mesophilic and thermophilic aerobic bacteria from home made compost was conducted in Gwagwalada, Nigeria and the composting was done for a period of 90 days. Initial temperature of the heap after mixing was 30°C which was higher than the environmental temperature (25 oC). Within a week (15 days), the pile temperature reached 35 °C and then increased to 50 °C on 45th day, as composting proceeded and finally dropped and stabilized at 28 °C (near to ambient) by the 90th day. The thermophilic and mesophilic bacteria isolated during composting were significantly different (P > 0.05), Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis had the highest number of occurrences, which represented 23.33 % each of the total isolates, followed by Serratia marcescens which represented 10 %. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli represented 6.67 % each being the least isolates. The quantities of the cellulase enzyme produced showed that Bacillus subtilis had the highest cellulase and xylanase activity which give 26.18±0.10 and 24.10±0.12 Enzyme Unit (EU) respectively followed by Bacillus licheniformis which produced 25.10±0.20 EU and 22.50±0.20 EU for cellulase and xylanase respectively, Bacillus cereus with 22.14±0.11 EU and 20.02±0.02 EU for cellulase and xylanase respectively, Serratia marcescens with 20.09±0.14 EU and 18.20±0.18 EU for cellulase and xylanase respectively, Staphylococcus aureus with 19.22±0.21 EU and 17.40±0.17 EU for cellulase and xylanase respectively, Escherichia coli 18.50±0.50 EU and 16.33±0.25 EU for cellulase and xylanase respectively and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 16.20±0.21 EU and 14.11±0.08 EU for cellulase and xylanase respectively being the least value. There was no significant difference between the cellulase and xylanase activities produced by isolated thermophillic and mesophillic bacteria from compost.